Eco-Friendly Flame-Retardant Additives for Polyurethane Foams: A Short Review
Polyurethane (PU) materials are extensively used in the construction industry as core material insulation for sandwich panel application, such as wall cladding, structure insulation and roof panel. Demands on PU application have escalated given its significant advantages to reduce energy consumption. Meanwhile, rigid PU (RPU) foams are combustible materials characterized by rapid flame spread, high heat-release rates, and ability to produce large quantities of toxic gases in original form. Thus, flame-retardant (FR) additives are used to improve the thermal properties of PU. However, some commercial additives used today have are hazardous to humans and the environment, and their extensive application is limited by their negative effects on polymer mechanical properties. Accordingly, identifying materials that are environmentally friendly and harmless to humans has become urgent. Some alternative additives that are gaining research interest are clay and fly ash, which are natural and recyclable resources that can enhance the FR properties of other polymers. However, room for improvement is always present as the related technology is continually being developed. This review focuses on studies aiming to enhance the flame retardancy of RPU foam using fly ash and local clay as additives.
Al Emran Ismail, Muhamad Zaini Yunos, Reazul Haq Abdul Haq and Said Ahmad
M. H. M. Ali et al., "Eco-Friendly Flame-Retardant Additives for Polyurethane Foams: A Short Review", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 791, pp. 19-28, 2018