Abstract: Small-angle neutron scattering was studied in Invar Fe-Ni-C alloys in comparison with the Fe-Ni alloy. Mössbauer measurement was carried out to indicate magnetic structure. The non-linear SANS curves were analysed using a power law function and the Porod approximation and interpreted in terms of aggregates characterized by smooth surfaces or fractal properties. The size and shape of the inhomogeneities were estimated by using the Indirect Fourier Transformation analysis.
Abstract: The distributions of substructure parameters for tubes of Zr-based alloys were
constructed by use of the X-ray method of Generalized Pole Figures, combining X-ray line analysis and texture measurement. Obtained distributions cover α-Zr crystallites of all orientations and give the fullest description of substructure features of the studied tubes. The interconnection of different substructure parameters are analyzed.
Abstract: The substructure inhomogeneity of real textured metal materials was studied by use of the X-ray method of Generalized Pole Figures and the computer data treatment. Main regularities of substructure inhomogeneity were revealed for the first time. Substructure conditions of grains in rolled material form an extremely wide spectrum and vary by passing from texture maxima to texture minima, where residual deformation effects are most significant. The distribution of residual elastic microstrains in the orientational space of rolled material shows the distinct system.
Abstract: Neutron powder diffraction on the binary intermetallics Er5Mg24 and Tm5Mg24 confirms their isostructural and pure crystallization in the Ti5Re24-type structure (space group I 4 3m, Z = 2)with rare earths located in 2a(0,0,0) and 8c(x,x,x) and Mg in two different 24g(x,y,x) sites. Room temperature lattice constants are 11.263(2) Å and 11.215(1) Å for the Er and Tm compound, respectively. Atomic positions have been refined. Both compounds order ferromagnetically below Curie temperatures of 17.5(5) K and 7.5(5) K for Er5Mg24 and Tm5Mg24, respectively. The magnitudes of the Er moments at 4.2 K are 7.5(2) µB and 4.4(2)µB on the 2a and the 8c sites, respectively. The Tm moments which have been refined from 2 K measurements amount to 3.0(3)µB and 2.8(2) µB, respectively. The temperature dependencies of the magnetic Bragg intensities reveal distinct deviations from Brillouin curves for J = 15/2 (Er) and J = 6 (Tm) systems and indicate a complex magnetic exchange.
Abstract: The orientation distribution function (ODF) of the textured polycrystalline nickel
titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys (SMAs) was determined from the measured austenitic (B2)pole-figures by neutron diffraction. The texture results showed that neutron diffraction is an excellent tool to investigate the minor variation in the texture of NiTi alloys, which is very sensitive to the variation of the content of nickel in the materials. Moreover, the alloys crystallographic phase fraction and texture were calculated from Rietveld refinement with generalized spherical harmonic
(GSH) description for the measured complete neutron powder diffraction (ND) spectrum, rather than a few isolated peaks, during in-situ temperature-induced martensitic transformation. The phase fraction results are consistent with the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) curves.
Abstract: By using non-equilibrium methods and subsequent annealing, rare-earth transitionŒ
metal-alloys with the nominal chemical composition 2:17 show a hexagonal metastable TbCu7 like structure. This disordered hexagonal (P6/mmm) metastable compound can be represented by a rhombohedral cell by using a cell transition of the hexagonal space group P6/mmm into the translationsgleiche subgroup P -31m (162) and subsequently into the klassengleiche subgroup II b R -3m. The atomic positions of the obtained rhombohedral cell correspond to appropriate coordinates in the hexagonal cell. In that way, a partial order of the 2:17 structure can be described. For the binary system Sm-Fe, a compound with similar structure and the formula SmFe8.5 exists. Examples are given for the obtained phases after ball milling the elemental powders Fe and Sm and subsequent annealing, and also after HDDR of Sm2Fe17.
Abstract: In depth study of the crystal structures of piezoelectric materials as a function of
temperature, pressure and composition allows for the design and optimization of such materials and defines the conditions of their use in technological applications. Results from studies on two classes of piezoelectric materials are described, the α-quartz group and the ferroelectric perovskite group.
The structures of α-quartz-type germanium dioxide and iron phosphate were refined at high temperatures by the Rietveld method using time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data. The α-β phase transition occurs at 980 K in FePO4, whereas for GeO2, no β phase is observed. The intertetrahedral bridging angle θ and the tilt angle δ in GeO2 exhibit thermal stabilities that are significantly greater than α-quartz. The temperature dependence of these angles is found to be a function of the initial structural distortion in α-quartz homeotypes with the notable exception of α-quartz-type FePO4, which appears to be dynamically unstable. The stability of α-quartz and α-quartz-type germanium dioxide was investigated at high pressure by x-ray powder diffraction. New six-fold coordinated forms were found in both materials.
The important, perovskite-type, piezoelectric material PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 was studied up to 18 GPa by angle-dispersive, x-ray diffraction using an imaging plate and by Raman spectroscopy. A novel phase transition was found in this system at close to 5 GPa. Whereas the x-ray diffraction data indicated no deviation from cubic symmetry above this pressure, a strong Raman signal was present in this phase, which is similar to those observed for ferroelectric relaxors.
Abstract: The ultrafine spinel NiFe1.9M0.1O4 powders (M=Al, Y, Cr, Fe) were synthesized by thermal decomposition of appropriate mixtures of complex compounds with acetylacetone - (2,4 pentadione) ligands ([M(AA)x]) at 500 °C.
Samples were annealed in the temperature range 600-1000 °C and the crystallization process was followed by XRD. The largest crystallite size and the highest crystallization rate are observed for NiFe1.9Al0.1O4, while the opposite was found for NiFe1.9Y0.1O4. Strain value in NiFe1.9Y0.1O4 changes sign at temperatures between 700-800 °C, while for NiFe1.9M0.1O4 (M=Al, Cr) it has a
positive sign and reaches the maximum value at 700 °C.
The crystal structure of the samples annealed at 1000 °C was refined using the Rietveld profile method. Cation substitution in Ni-ferrite changes its structural and microstructural parameters, and can also significantly influence other physical properties.
Abstract: By means of neutron diffraction the low-temperature crystal structure of NaBD4 has been determined. At 10 K the lattice parameters are a = 4.332(1) Å and c = 5.869(1) Å. Deuterium is found in a tetrahedral arrangement [sites (8g)] around B. The symmetry corresponds to space group P42/nmc. For room temperature the structure model for NaBD4 of Davis and Kennard with disordered deuterium distributed over two sites has been revised to space group Fm-3 m. Thus the 190 K phase transition known from specific heat measurements is of order-disorder type, caused by reorientations of BD4 tetrahedra.