Nanomaterials by Severe Plastic Deformation

Volumes 503-504

doi: 10.4028/

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Authors: K.H. Joo, K.I. Chang, Hyoung Seop Kim, Sun Ig Hong
Abstract: In this study, equal channel angular pressing was carried out on Cu-Fe-Cr composites at room temperature. The microstructure and hardness of Cu-Fe-Cr pressed using different ECAP routes were investigated. All Cu-Fe-Cr specimens showed ultrafine-grained microstructures with the shape and distribution of Fe-Cr phase dependent on the processing routes. As the number of pressing increased by route A, the initial denfrite of Fe-Cr phase were elongated along the shear direction and developed into filaments. On the other hand, as the number of pressing increased by route Bc, the initial dendrite became finer by fragmentation with no pronounced change of the shape. In route C, the shearing of the second phase in the first pass can be reversed by the shearing in the reverse direction in the second pass and the morphological change of Fe-cr particles is minimal. The hardness increased more rapidly in route Bc and route C than in route A. In ECAPed Cu-Fe-Cr, the spacing between Fe-Cr filaments did not decrease appreciably with strain unlike the cold-drawn Cu-Fe-Cr in which the spacing between Fe-Cr filaments decreases rapidly with strain. The higher strength in route C can be associated with the sub-divided microstructure resulting from the activation of various slip systems enhanced by the presence of larger strong particles. This result suggests that the microstructural development in Cu matrix is more important in strengthening than the morphological development of Fe-Cr phase in ECAPed Cu-Fe-Cr.
Authors: Cheng Xu, Terence G. Langdon
Abstract: A commercial spray-cast aluminum alloy, having a composition of Al-11.5% Zn-2.5% Mg-0.9% Cu-0.2% Zr, was processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) to give an ultrafine-grained microstructure with a grain size of ~0.3 μm and a fracturing of the rod-shaped MgZn2 precipitates. The mechanical properties of the alloy were investigated using microhardness testing at ambient temperature and tensile testing at a temperature of 673 K. In addition, creep tests were conducted using a double-shear testing facility at temperatures from 473 to 673 K. The results show the microhardness decreases with increasing numbers of passes in ECAP and high strain rate superplasticity is achieved after processing by ECAP at 473 K for 6 or 8 passes. A maximum elongation of >1000% was recorded at a strain rate of 10-2 s-1 when testing at 673 K. The creep tests show the creep rates are faster in the as-pressed material than in the as-received material when testing at the same applied stress and testing temperature.
Authors: Megumi Kawasaki, Cheng Xu, Terence G. Langdon
Abstract: A commercial aluminum 7034 alloy, produced by spray casting and having an initial grain size of ~2.1 μm, was subjected to equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) through six passes at 473 K. In the as-pressed condition, the microstructure was reasonably homogeneous and the grain size was reduced to an ultrafine grain size of ~0.3 μm. This alloy contains MgZn2 and Al3Zr precipitates which restrict grain growth. In tensile testing at 673 K after processing by ECAP, an elongation of >1000% was achieved at a strain rate of 1.0 × 10-2 s-1 corresponding to high strain rate superplasticity. Quantitative cavity measurements were conducted on the specimens after tensile testing for both the as-received condition and after ECAP. These measurements reveal a significant number of small cavities in the samples and especially in the sample that exhibited a very high elongation. This paper describes the morphology of cavity development in the spray-cast aluminum alloy in both the as-received and as-pressed condition.
Authors: Yuri Estrin
Abstract: In this talk, a range of effects produced by severe plastic deformation will be considered. In addition to the mechanical property improvements, such as enhanced strength and more favourable conditions for superplasticity, SPD will be shown to produce a much broader spectrum of beneficial effects. Case studies demonstrating accelerated kinetics of nitriding of steels and hydrogenation of Mg alloys will be presented. Further possible applications of SPD techniques will be discussed.
Authors: Werner Skrotzki, N. Scheerbaum, C.G. Oertel, Heinz Günter Brokmeier, Satyam Suwas, László S. Tóth
Abstract: The technical aluminum alloy AA 5109 with a strong cube rolling texture has been deformed at room temperature by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using three passes of route A. Samples for ECAP have been cut parallel and at 45° with respect to the rolling direction yielding different starting textures. The local texture after ECAP has been investigated by highenergy synchrotron radiation. It is characterized by typical shear components of face-centred cubic (fcc) metals which deviate from their ideal positions. The texture with respect to intensity and deviation from ideal positions of the components depends on the distance from the top of the extruded billet and changes from pass to pass. It is also strongly influenced by the starting texture. The texture gradient has been discussed in the light of Tóth’s flow line model. The texture results have also been compared with those of other fcc metals with different stacking fault energy.
Authors: Bert Verlinden, M. Popović
Abstract: Two Aluminium alloys, type AA5182 and AA5182+1.2wt% Cu, have been studied. The second alloy in solution treated condition is 18% stronger than the first one. During ageing at 150°C or 200°C it shows a characteristic fast increase in yield strength during the first minutes of ageing, followed by a 'plateau'. Both materials have been deformed in an ECAP die (4 and 8 passes) at 200°C and the microstructure, hardness and mechanical properties in compression at room temperature have been investigated. Although in none of the two materials a true sub-micron grain size was obtained at 200°C, a fair combination of strength and strain hardening was observed. The AA5182+Cu alloy, when ECAP’ed after a solution treatment and quenching, shows an increase in strength of about 20% compared to the AA5182 reference alloy. A post-ECAP annealing at 200°C does not lead to a further increase in hardness or strength. An analysis of the substructure and the mechanical properties during ECAP led to the conclusion that the precipitates formed during ECAP at 200°C do not directly contribute to the higher strength of alloy AA5182+Cu, but they contribute indirectly by slowing down the recovery.
Authors: Minoru Furukawa, Yukihide Fukuda, Keiichiro Oh-ishi, Z. Horita, Terence G. Langdon
Abstract: This paper describes experiments in which high purity copper single crystals of two different orientations were processed for one pass by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) and the deformed structures were examined using optical microscopy (OM), orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The first single crystal (0° specimen) was oriented within the entrance channel of the die so that the {111} slip plane and the <110> slip direction were parallel to the theoretical shear plane and shear direction, respectively. The second crystal (20° specimen) was oriented with the {111} slip plane and the <110> slip direction rotated by 20° in a clockwise sense from the theoretical shear plane and shear direction, respectively. For the 0° specimen, after passing through the shear plane there were two crystallographic orientations representing the initial orientation and an orientation rotated by 60° in a counter-clockwise sense from the initial orientation. For the 20° specimen, there was an orientation rotated by 20° in a counter-clockwise sense from the initial orientation after passing through the shear plane.
Authors: Kyung Tae Park, Chong Soo Lee, Yong Suk Kim, Dong Hyuk Shin
Abstract: Superplastic behavior of an ultrafine grained (UFG) 5154 Al alloy processed by ECAP and cold rolling (ECAP+CR sample) was investigated and compared with that of the alloy processed by only ECAP without rolling (ECAP sample) in the strain rate range of 10-4~5×10-1 s-1 at 723 K. Processing of the ECAP+CR sample consisted of ECAP of 4 passes, which was less than that showing the optimum microstructure for high strain rate superplasticity of UFG Al alloys (i.e. 8 passes), with route Bc and subsequent cold rolling (70% thickness reduction). The superplastic elongation was remarkably enhanced by post-rolling. An analysis of the mechanical data revealed that deformation of the ECAP+CR sample was dominated by grain boundary sliding, but dislocation viscous glide was the main deformation mechanism for the ECAP sample. In addition, cavitation in the ECAP+CR sample was insignificant up to ∼300% elongation.
Authors: Yuntian T. Zhu
Abstract: Deformation twins have been oberved in nanocrystalline (NC) Al synthsized by cryogenic ball-milling and in NC Cu processed by high-pressure torsion under room temperature and at a very low strain rate. They were found formed by partial dislocations emitted from grain boundaries. This paper first reviews experimental evidences on deformation twinning and partial dislocation emissions from grain boundaries, and then discusses recent analytical models on the nucleation and growth of deformation twins. These models are compared with experimental results to establish their validity and limitations.
Authors: Tamás Ungár
Abstract: The fundamentals of X-ray line profile analysis are summarised in terms of subgrain size and size-distribution, dislocation density and dislocation types, especially edge and screw dislocations, intrinsic and extrinsic stacking faults and twin boundaries and vacancies produced during plastic deformation. It is shown that deformation induced vacancy concentrations in the grain boundaries of compressed copper polycrystals are close to the equilibrium values at the melting temperature. The discrepancy between X-ray and TEM size values is discussed in terms subgrain- and grain size. It is shown that this apparent discrepancy might be used to determine the status of fragmentation by severe plastic deformation.

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