Formation of a nanocrystalline structure through rapid solidification, thermal crystallization and electron irradiation induced crystallization was investigated in Fe-Nd-B alloys. A nanocrystalline structure was obtained by rapid quenching of the melt in a Fe86Nd9B5 alloy, while an amorphous single phase was formed in a Fe77Nd4.5B18.5 alloy. In the latter alloy, a nanocrystalline structure was obtained by thermal crystallization and electron irradiation induced crystallization of the amorphous phase. The average grain size of the precipitate obtained by irradiation at 298 K was about 8 nm, which is much smaller than that obtained during thermal crystallization. Results indicate that electron irradiation is effective for obtaining a novel nanocrystalline structure in Fe-Nd-B alloys.