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Authors: Toru Shimizu, Kunio Matsuzaki
Abstract: Already, we are developing the process to produce stainless steel foam over 97% porosity using hydro-gel binder. However, this process is very sensitive process, and foaming condition is affected by the slight deference of heating temperature. Therefore, we tried to improve the process by changing the foaming agent and foaming conditions. By the improvement of the process, the foaming operation becomes stable and finer cell size stainless steel foam can be obtained.
Authors: Bo Young Hur, Sang Youl Kim, Yong Su Um, Yong Mun Ryu
Abstract: A study on the tensile, compression and bending test of Aluminum foam Application for auto bumper and rod. We know a more efficiency to adhesive Aluminum foam out side of part in aspect to price, weight and capacity when make auto-component using aluminum foam. We secured basis properties of aluminum foam for applying auto-component by tensile, compressive and bending test. Aluminum foam was equipped to crash core with different shape. The results of maximum loads test are higher by full> cavity> bridge> half type relationship order. And, we could know that a difference of weight of full, cavity, and bridge type is not big.
Authors: Thomas Daxner, Robert D. Bitsche, Helmut J. Böhm
Abstract: Coating of a precursor structure, which is subsequently removed by chemical or thermal treatment, is a technology for producing cellular materials with interesting properties, for example in the form of metallic sponges with hollow struts. In this paper idealized models for determining the effective elastic properties of such materials are presented. The chosen models for the structures are space-filling, periodically repeating unit cell models based on idealized models of wet foams, which were generated with the program ‘Surface Evolver’. The underlying topology is that of a Weaire-Phelan structure. The geometry of the micro-structures can be described by two principal parameters, viz. the volume fraction of solid material in the precursor structures, which determines the shape of the final structures, and the thickness of the metallic coating, which defines their apparent density. The influence of these two parameters on the macro-mechanical behavior is investigated. The elastic properties of the micro-structures are described by three independent elastic constants owing to overall cubic material symmetry. The dependence of the effective Young’s modulus on the direction of uniaxial loading is investigated, and the elastic anisotropy of the structures is evaluated.
Authors: X.F. Tao, Li Ping Zhang, Y.Y. Zhao
Abstract: This paper investigated the mechanical response of porous copper manufactured by LCS under three-point bending and Charpy impact conditions. The effects of the compaction pressure and K2CO3 particle size used in producing the porous copper samples and the relative density of the samples were studied. The apparent modulus, flexural strength and energy absorption capacity in three-point bending tests increased exponentially with increasing relative density. The impact strength was not markedly sensitive to relative density and had values within 7 – 9 kJ/m2 for the relative densities in the range 0.17 – 0.31. The amount of energy absorbed by a porous copper sample in the impact test was much higher than that absorbed in the three-point bending test, impling that loading strain rate had a significant effect on the deformation mechanisms. Increasing compaction pressure and increasing K2CO3 particle size resulted in significant increases in the flexural strength and the bending energy absorption capacity, both owing to the reduced sintering defects.
Authors: Afsaneh Rabiei, Brian Neville, Nick Reese, Lakshmi Vendra
Abstract: New composite metal foams are processed using powder metallurgy (PM) and gravity casting techniques. The foam is comprised of steel hollow spheres, with the interstitial spaces occupied by a solid metal matrix (Al or steel alloys). The cyclic compression loading of the products of both techniques has shown that the composite metal foams have high cyclic stability at very high maximum stress levels up to 68 MPa. Under cyclic loading, unlike other metal foams, the composite metal foams do not experience rapid strain accumulation within collapse bands and instead, a uniform distribution of deformation happen through the entire sample until the densification strain is reached. This is a result of more uniform cell structure in composite metal foams compared to other metal foams. As a result, the features controlling the fatigue life of the composite metal foams have been considered as sphere wall thickness and diameter, sphere and matrix materials, and processing techniques as well as bonding strength between the spheres and matrix.
Authors: Thomas Fiedler, Andreas Öchsner, José Grácio
Abstract: This paper is on the investigation of adhesively bonded metallic hollow sphere structures. Two different approaches, namely experimental analysis and finite element cal- culations are applied and the findings of both attempts are compared. In the scope of the numerical approach the influence of the mechanical properties of the adhesive on the me- chanical response of the structure is analysed. Based on these results, suggestions for design parameters are derived.
Authors: Han Zhao, I. Elnasri, Hui Jian Li
Abstract: This paper presents a study of the strength enhancement under impact loading of metallic cellular materials as well as sandwich panels with cellular core. It begins with a review of likely causes responsible for the strength enhancement of cellular materials. A testing method using 60mm diameter Nylon Hopkinson pressure bars is used to investigate the rate sensitivity of various metallic cellular materials. In order to identify the factor responsible for the strength enhancement of those materials, an experimental analysis is performed on a model structure which is a square tube made of rate insensitive materials. Significant enhancement is experimentally observed under impact loading, whereas the crushing mode is nearly the same under both static and impact loading. Finally, an inversed perforation test on sandwich panels with an instrumented pressure bar is also presented. Such a new testing setup provides piercing force time history measurement, generally inaccessible. Testing results show a notable enhancement of piercing forces, even though the skin aluminum plates and the foam cores are nearly rate insensitive.
Authors: Luigino Filice, Livan Fratini, Domenico Umbrello
Abstract: Metallic foams have been recently introduced also as industrial materials due to their well known advantages. In fact, their low mass in conjunction with the good thermal and mechanical properties push toward an extensive diffusion in manufacturing industry. In the study here addressed, a very accurate investigation concerning the latter two aspects has been carried out. In fact, a secondary manufacturing process, i.e. the foam bending, has been taken into account. Anyway, all the knowledge derived for sheet metal bending is not directly applicable to the foams. A finite element code has been utilized for modeling the foam behavior during the bending processes and an accurate material rheology description was utilized based on a porous material model which includes the measured local density. The effectiveness of the utilized model has been verified through the comparison with a set of experimental data.
Authors: Olaf Andersen, Wolfgang Hungerbach, Günther Stephani, Thomas Studnitzky
Abstract: inno.zellmet is a large funded project which aims at the commercialisation of new, non-foam types of cellular metals. The project focuses on porous structures made from metallic short fibers and structures made from metallic hollow spheres, which are both chararacterised by multifunctionality and low specific weight. Six research institutes and 17 partners from industry constitute a local network that jointly develops solutions based on these "constructed materials". Target applications are situated in industrial sectors such as light-weight construction, decentralised energy generation, medical and biotechnology, as well as sound absorption and explosion protection for stationary machinery. inno.zellmet has started in March 2005 and will run for 3 years. During this time, it receives 3.9 Mio. EUR in funding from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research under the "Unternehmen Region" initiative. This paper highlights some of the results obtained so far.
Authors: Soong Keun Hyun, Tsuyoshi Awadu, Teruyuki Ikeda, Hideo Nakajima
Abstract: Lotus-type porous Cu-5at.%Al alloy whose elongated pores are aligned in one direction was fabricated by unidirectional solidification in pressurized hydrogen gas atmosphere. The porosity of the Cu-Al alloy was higher than that of pure copper under the same fabrication conditions because of difference in hydrogen solubility. The pore structure was not round shape because the directional pore growth was interrupted with dendrite arms formed during the solidification; the pores grew to detour the obstacle of the dendrite arms.

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