Progress in Powder Metallurgy

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Authors: Yun Zhong Liu, Yuan Yuan Li
Abstract: In conventional studies, different empirical atomization equations are correlated for different kinds of atomization methods or even in the same method. In the present study, it was found that the basic law of melt breakup from bulky liquid into droplets can be universally applied to all atomization methods. Based on theoretical analysis, a new general equation of mean particle size applicable to both conventional atomization methods and new atomization processes is presented. The mean particle size in melt atomization is mainly controlled and decided by two key dimensionless parameter groups representing the liquid stability of melts and the breakup ability of atomizer respectively. Different specific atomization mechanisms result in different formulae in conventional atomization methods. In case of gas atomization, it is equivalent with and can be changed into Lubanska Equation. In case of centrifugal atomization, it can be changed into the equations that are currently the most widely used. In case of water atomization, it is similar to the equation proposed by Grandzol and Tallmadge. According to the universal equation, new correlations for mean particle size in novel atomization processes such as Hybrid Atomization and Multistage Atomization were proposed and agreed with our experimental data well.
Authors: Chong Lin Wang, Chun Guang Zhang
Abstract: X-ray analysis on iron ores and reduced iron powders revealed that around 60% acidinsoluble substances were hexagonal and tetragonal quartz, another 40% substances were sillimanite, alumina-silicate, an unnamed zeolite, all contained Si and Al. SEM images displayed that the particle size of them was in the range of 3~7 μm, which may be the initial source of the cracking in the sintered body. Statistics analysis showed that the Acid-Insoluble Content (AIC) for high-grade magnetite powder was (0.130±0.010) % during the latest five months. The predicting value for reduced iron powder from ore powders should be 0.179 %. However, the testing value for reduced iron powder was (0.192±0.014) %. The limited difference of 0.013% might imply rare pollution coming from the reduction and milling processes. The most important step for control AIC should be the separation process of iron ore powders.
Authors: D. Kim, E.S. Vasilieva, A.G. Nasibulin, D.W. Lee, Oleg V. Tolochko, Byoung Kee Kim
Abstract: Magnetic oxide-coated iron nanoparticles with the mean size ranging from 6 to 75 nm were synthesized by aerosol method using iron carbonyl as a precursor under the flowing inert gas atmosphere. Oxide shells were formed by passivation of as-prepared iron particles. The influence of experimental parameters on the nanoparticles’ microstructure, phase composition and growth behavior as well as magnetic properties were investigated and discussed in this study.
Authors: Lydia Achelis, Volker Uhlenwinkel, S. Lagutkin, Sh. Sheikhaliev
Abstract: An update and the latest results on molten metal atomization using a Pressure-Gas- Atomizer will be given. This atomizer combines a swirl-pressure atomizer, to generate a liquid hollow cone film and a gas atomizer to atomize the film and/or the fragments of the film. The paper is focused on powder production, but this atomization system is also applicable for deposition purposes. Different alloys (Sn, SnCu) were atomized to study the characteristics of the Pressure- Gas-Atomizer. The powders produced were analyzed by laser diffraction and image processing. Among other parameters, the molten metal mass flow (~140 – 200 kg/h), the gas mass flow and the atomizer design were varied. The results include the effects of these variances on particle size and particle shape.
Authors: Woo Hyun Jung, Dong Kyu Park, Kwang Chul Jung, Se Hoon Suck, In Sup Ahn, Ki Won Kim
Abstract: As the electrodes of secondary battery are made with sulfide composite powders, excellent electrode system of environmental non-toxicity and with high specific energy density and low material cost can be obtained. In this study, the (Fe, M)S2 composite powders was synthesized by mechanochemical processes (MCP) in order to improve of the cycle life in bettery. The formation of pyrite phase appreared at the case which adds nickel, but it was not observed in the case where the transition metal was does not add but the transition metal such as cobalt, molybdenum was added in stead. From charge-discharge test results, the initial discharge capasity of (Fe, Ni)S2 electrode was 845 mAh/g. The initial discharge capasity of (Fe, Co)S2 electrode was 500mAh/g, but it showed a better cycle perfoemance than the case where the diffrent transition metal was added.
Authors: Sang Jin Lee, P.W. Shin, J.W. Kim, S.Y. Chun
Abstract: Pure and stable YAG (Y3Al5O12) powders were synthesized by a PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) polymer solution technique. PVA was used as an organic carrier for the precursor ceramic gel. The PVA affected crystallization behavior, powder morphology, specific surface area and crystalline size of the synthesized powders. The precursor gels were crystallized to YAG at relatively a low temperature of 900 °C. The synthesized powders, which have nano-sized primary particles, were soft and porous, and the porous powders were ground to sub-micron size by a simple ball milling process. The ball-milled powders were densified to 94% relative density at 1500 °C for 1h. In this study, the characteristics of the synthesized YAG powders were examined by using X-ray diffractometer, simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry and electrophoretic light scattering spectrophotometer. And the morphologies of the powders and the densified samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy.
Authors: Kwon Koo Cho, Kyo Hong Choi, Ki Won Kim, Gyu Bong Cho, Yoo Young Kim
Abstract: Gallium phosphide nanowires were successfully synthesized by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method using MgO powder-impregnated nickel oxide as catalyst and gallium phosphide and gallium powders as GaP source. The synthesis of GaP nanowires were carried out at 900°C for 30min under argon ambient and directly vaporized Ga and GaP powder. The diameter of GaP nanowires is about 25~70nm and the length is up to several tens of micrometers. The GaP NWs was core-shell structure, which consists of the GaP core and the Ga oxide outer layers. The GaP nanowires have a single-crystalline zinc blend structured crystals with the [111] growth direction. Nanowires larger than around 50nm in diameter exhibited twinning faults, which appears in the TEM images as discrete dark lines and alternating wire contrast. We demonstrate that MgO powder-impregnated nickel oxide catalyst exhibited a large catalytic effect on the growth of high-purity and -quantity gallium phosphide(GaP).
Authors: Jong Keun Ha, Kwon Koo Cho, Ki Won Kim, Tae Hyun Nam, Hyo Jun Ahn, Gyu Bong Cho
Abstract: Various physical, chemical and mechanical methods, such as inert gas condensation, chemical vapor condensation, sol-gel, pulsed wire evaporation, evaporation technique, and mechanical alloying have been used to synthesize nanoparticles. Among them, chemical vapor condensation(CVC) represents the benefit for its applicability to almost materials because a wide range of precursors are available for large-scale production with a non-agglomerated state. In this work, iron nanoparticles and nanowires have synthesized by chemical vapor condensation(CVC) process, using iron pentacarbonyl(Fe(CO)5) as precursor. The effects of processing parameters on the morphology, microstructure and size of iron nanoparticles and nanowires were studied. Iron nanoparticles and nanowires having various diameters were obtained by controlling the inflow of metallic organic precursor. Both nanoparticles and nanowires were crystallized. Characterization of obtained nanoparticles and nanowires were investigated by using a field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission microscopy and X-ray diffraction.
Authors: Christopher Schade, John Schaberl
Abstract: Advanced melting technology is now being employed in the manufacture of stainless steel powders. The new process currently includes electric arc furnace (EAF) technology in concert with Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD), High Performance Atomizing (HPA) and hydrogen annealing. The new high performance processing route has allowed the more consistent production of existing products, and has allowed enhanced properties, such as improved green strength and green density. This paper will review these processing changes along with the potential new products that are being developed utilizing this technology. These include high strength stainless steels such as duplex and dual phase as well as stainless steel powders used in high temperature applications such as diesel filters and fuel cells.

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