Recrystallization and Grain Growth III

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Authors: Hirofumi Inoue, M. Hori, Toshio Komatsubara, Hiroki Tanaka, Takayuki Takasugi
Abstract: In order to improve deep drawability of 6000 series aluminum alloys for automotive body panels, texture control for increasing r-value of the sheets was attempted by combination of symmetric and asymmetric rolling. Asymmetric warm rolling at relatively low reduction after symmetric rolling made it possible to form TD-rotated β-fiber texture including {111} components. Recrystallization textures of the T4-treated materials varied significantly depending on roll speed ratio and reduction in asymmetric warm rolling. On appropriate rolling conditions, {111}<110> orientation with high r-value was formed as a main component of recrystallization texture. On the other hand, two-stage heat treatment consisting of low temperature annealing and subsequent T4-treatment led to a significant change in recrystallization texture. In the sample annealed for long time at a low temperature, TD-rotated β-fiber rolling texture was retained even after solution treatment at a much higher temperature, because recovery or recrystallization took place to some extent during low temperature annealing.
Authors: Y.G. Jeong, Woo Jin Kim, Seo Gou Choi, Ha Guk Jeong
Abstract: For the Magnesium alloy AZ31, hot rolling is usually carried out in the temperature range between 250 and 400°C but the processed sheets usually exhibit high anisotropy in mechanical properties. In the current study, DSR process was found to be effective in improving anisotropy of mechanical properties and ductility at room temperature. Full recrystallization takes place from 200°C and above. A large drop of UTS occurs above 200°C where full recrystallization starts. Tensile elongation increases with annealing temperature but anisotropy degrades from 200°C onwards. Texture change during recrystallization is believed to be responsible for this result.
Authors: Hai Ou Jin, Pei Dong Wu, David J. Lloyd
Abstract: Two AA5754 sheets have been processed by cold rolling with 83% thickness reduction, one at room temperature and another with liquid nitrogen as coolant. The sheets were subsequently annealed at 220-275°C for 1 hour. The development of grain structure and texture was studied by optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in SEM, and the mechanical property by micro-hardness testing. It has been demonstrated that the as-rolled sheets have the same micro-hardness, but the grain structures and textures are very different. Compared to the sheet processed with liquid nitrogen, the one rolled at room temperature has stronger shear texture and finer grain structure.
Authors: Katsura Kajihara
Abstract: This study presents in-situ EBSP observations of recrystallization in commercial purity aluminum sheets with different concentrations of solutes and different states of precipitation. The in-situ observations demonstrate clearly the behaviors of the nucleation and growth of recrystallized grains, and the movements of grain boundaries at an early stage of recrystallization. The high mobility of grain boundaries neighboring the deformed matrix was generally observed presumably due to strain-induced grain boundaries migration. The grain boundary motion was also found to strongly depend to the solute content level. These in-situ observations provide important evidence to show that the behaviors of grain boundary motion at an early stage of recrystallization leads to the grain size distribution and the curvature of grain boundaries after the primary recrystallization.
Authors: Su Hyeon Kim, Seung Zeon Han, Chang Joo Kim, Soon Young Ok, In Youb Hwang, Fu Xing Yin
Abstract: Copper foils cold rolled up to 92% reduction exhibited a low intensity of the β-fiber texture and a high intensity of the cube and RD (rolling direction)-rotated cube components. After annealing, the recrystallization texture of the foils could be characterized by the mixture of the cube and the S components. An initial strong cube texture with a large grain size might remain a less developed rolling texture component, cube or RD-rotated cube, which would be the source of the S component in the recrystallization texture.
Authors: Satoru Kobayashi, Stefan Zaefferer
Abstract: A fine grained and recovered structure with densely formed fine particles has been created by means of a thermomechanical process (TMP) in Fe3Al (bcc derivative structure)-based alloys. The TMP consists of the following two parts; the first part is grain refinement and the second the creation of recovered structure stabilized by fine particles. It was found in the first part that coarse particles are required in the process of deformation to refine grain size by particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) mechanism. Fine M2C type carbide particles were densely precipitated in the second part. These particles were observed to inhibit the growth of subgrains formed around coarse particles during annealing at 700°C. This result suggests that if the fine particle density remains high, the recovered structure can be maintained at 700°C.
Authors: Kyoo Young Lee, Gyo Sung Kim, Kwang Geun Chin, Leo Kestens
Abstract: The evolution of texture and stored energy was studied for Ti bearing and Ti-Nb bearing IF high strength steel undergoing a double cold rolling and annealing treatment by using Orientation Imaging Microscopy. Ti bearing IF high strength steel showed a similar texture evolution of the α and γ fiber components to that of IF steel. On the contrary, Ti-Nb bearing IF high strength steel displayed a different texture evolution from the one observed in the former steels. The difference in texture and stored energy evolution between both high strength steels seemed to be affected by the segregation behavior of solute alloying elements such as P.
Authors: Naoki Maruyama, T. Ogawa, M. Takahashi
Abstract: Subgrain growth in deformed ferrite and incomplete recrystallisation during intercritical annealing in low carbon (LC) steels was investigated by EBSD and FEGTEM/EDS. It was confirmed that fine dual phase (α+γ) microstructures could be obtained even without the addition of microalloying elements such as Nb and Ti, if the steels were heated above Ac1 temperature before the completion of primary recrystallisation and then intercritically annealed. The fine microstructure was found to be mainly due to the inhibition of primary recrystallisation, and also due to the inhibition of subgrain growth in deformed matrix by finely dispersed γ phase formed during heating. Mn segregation at α/γ interfaces seems to indicate that the kinetics of boundary migration in the existence of γ is controlled by the volume diffusion of substitutional alloying elements across the α/γ interfaces.
Authors: Nicolas Meyer, Yves Bréchet, Muriel Véron, Marc Mantel, Pierre Emmanuel Dubois, Oliver Geoffroy
Abstract: Softening kinetics of two 17% chromium (Cr) stainless steel grades that differ in niobium (Nb) content are compared. In the experiments, we observed that a low Nb stabilization makes recrystallization nucleation much faster and prevents incomplete recrystallization. A qualitative interpretation, based on interaction with precipitates, is proposed and explains the main features of the softening kinetics as well as the microstructures obtained. For the Nb stabilized grade, magnetic losses were measured in the deformed state and after recrystallization. Above a specific magnetizing frequency, the deformed state led to smaller losses than the recrystallized state. These results are believed to be attributed to a grain size effect.
Authors: Xenia Molodova, Günter Gottstein, Ralph Jörg Hellmig
Abstract: Pure Cu, CuZr and an Al-alloy were processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) at room temperature applying route Bc. Microstructure evolution during ECAP and subsequent annealing was investigated. The deformed and annealed states were characterized by EBSD, TEM and microhardness tests. The microstructure variation was recorded and compared to the behavior of conventional cold rolled material. The study revealed a very low thermal stability of ECAP deformed pure Cu samples compared to cold rolled material with same total strain. However, the thermal stability was significantly improved by alloying with Zr. In contrast, ECAP deformed Al-alloy showed higher thermal stability than cold rolled material.

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