Recrystallization and Grain Growth III

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Authors: Hasso Weiland, Soon Wuk Cheong
Abstract: Control of grain size during recrystallization of aluminum alloys is critical when tailoring material properties for structural applications. Most commonly the grain size is controlled by adding alloying elements which form second phases during homogenization heat treatments small enough to impose a Zener drag on the grain boundary mobility. These phases are known as dispersoids and are in the 10 to 200 nm in diameter range. In Al-Zn alloys, zirconium has been successfully used in controlling the degree of recrystallization after solution heat treatments. It is commonly understood that the Al3Zr dispersoids of about 20 nm in diameter present in the microstructure are the key features affecting grain boundary mobility. With the success of controlling recrystallization in Al- Zn alloys, zirconium has been added to other alloy systems, such as Al-Cu-Mn, and a similar retarding effect in recrystallization kinetics has been observed as seen in the Al-Zn systems. However, in Al-Cu-Mn alloys, zirconium bearing dispersoids are not observable in the microstructure. Consequently, additional microstructural effects such as solute drag need to be considered to explain the experimental observations. In this paper, the role of zirconium additions in aluminum alloys will be summarized.
Authors: S.S. West, Grethe Winther, L. Margulies, Erik Knudsen, Henning O. Sørensen, Søren Schmidt, Dorte Juul Jensen
Abstract: A partially recrystallised sample has been characterised by 3DXRD. A gauge volume of 200μm × 700μm × 300μm has been fully mapped. Deformed and recrystallised regions within the selected gauge volume are distinguished based on the sharpness of the diffraction spots. Information corresponding to a 5D (Φ1, Φ, Φ2, z, x · y) map is deducted from the 3DXRD data.
Authors: Yan Wu, Chang Shu He, Xiang Zhao, Liang Zuo, T. Watanabe
Abstract: The effects of magnetic annealing on recrystallization and texture evolution in asannealed interstitial-free (IF) steel sheet were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction ODF analysis, SEM-EBSD analysis, and optical microstructure observation. During the magnetic annealing, specimens were placed at the center of the applied magnetic field, with their rolling planes parallel to the field direction (MD) and their rolling direction (RD) normal to the field direction (MD). It was found that the magnetic annealing retards the recrystallization process, but promotes the nucleation at the initial stage of recrystallization. Magnetic annealing did not change the mechanism of recrystallization texture evolution but improved the development of γ-fiber texture during the process of recrystallization, and the magnetically annealed specimen had stronger γ-fiber texture compared with the conventionally annealed specimen; this interesting finding is quite different from the previous work on magnetically annealed IF steel.
Authors: Bradley P. Wynne, O. Hernandez-Silva, M. Lopez-Pedrosa, W. Mark Rainforth
Abstract: The effects of strain path reversal, using forward and reverse torsion, on the microstructure evolution in the aluminium alloy AA5052 have been studied using high resolution electron backscatter diffraction. Deformation was carried using two equal steps of forward/forward or forward/reverse torsion at a temperature of 300°C and strain rate of 1s-1 to a total equivalent tensile strain of 0.5. Sections of the as-deformed gauge lengths of both test specimens were then annealed at 400°C for 1 hour in a salt bath in order to investigate their subsequent recrystallisation response. In both strain path histories the deformation substructure in the grains analysed consisted of microband arrays within an equiaxed dislocation cell structure. The material subjected to forward/forward deformation did, however, have a slightly greater number of low angle boundaries, i.e. boundaries < 15° misorientation, whilst the forward/reverse material had some grains containing little evidence of substructure. On annealing both materials had significantly reduced levels of low angle boundaries but only the forward/forward material had an increased number of high angle boundaries and a reduced grain size, indicating recrystallisation had only occurred in this material. This would suggest that the deformation microstructure within the forward/forward condition was sufficient to initiate and maintain recrystallisation whilst the microstructure produced by the forward/reverse test contained insufficient nuclei or internal energy to produce a recrystallised material within 1 hour. Further work is now required at different annealing times in order to determine if the major effect of strain path is on retarding nucleation, growth or both.
Authors: Wan Qiang Xu, Michael Ferry, Julie M. Cairney, John F. Humphreys
Abstract: A typical dual-beam platform combines a focused ion beam (FIB) microscope with a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEGSEM). Using FIB-FEGSEM, it is possible to sequentially mill away > ~ 50 nm sections of a material by FIB and characterize, at high resolution, the crystallographic features of each new surface by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The successive images can be combined to generate 3D crystallographic maps of the microstructure. A useful technique is described for FIB milling that allows the reliable reconstruction of 3D microstructures using EBSD. This serial sectioning technique was used to investigate the recrystallization behaviour of a particle-containing nickel alloy, which revealed a number of features of the recrystallizing grains that are not clearly evident in 2D EBSD micrographs such as clear evidence of particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) and twin formation and growth during PSN.
Authors: Wan Qiang Xu, Michael Ferry
Abstract: The effect of initial microstructure (acicular ferrite (AF), polygonal ferrite (PF) and strip cast (SC)) on the recrystallization behaviour of low carbon (LC) steel was investigated. Steel strip samples (0.05 wt.% C) of 2 mm in thickness were heat treated to produce an AF and PF microstructure from coarse austenite. The AF, PF and a similar chemistry SC sample manufactured from a twin roll caster were cold rolled to 50, 70 and 90% reduction, and annealed for various times in the temperature range 580-680 °C. The evolution of microstructure during recrystallization was studied by optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in the SEM. The initial microstructure was found to have a substantial influence on the recrystallization behavior. PF recrystallized more rapidly than AF with SC showing extremely sluggish recrystallization behaviour. The recrystallizing grains in these initial microstructures have a lognormal distribution and the recrystallized number density (grains/mm2) decreased during annealing, with the initial microstructures affecting the degree of this decrease in number density.
Authors: Hiromi Yoshida, Kaneharu Okuda, Hidetaka Kawabe, Toshiaki Urabe, Yasushi Tanaka, Yoshihiro Hosoya
Abstract: The effect of niobium (Nb) addition on recrystallization texture formation in cold-rolled low carbon steel sheets containing 2% manganese (Mn) was investigated. The microstructures of hot-bands were significantly refined by Nb addition, which led to the development of the cold-rolling texture in both the γ-fiber (<111>//ND-fiber) and the α-fiber (<110>//RD-fiber). Recrystallization was retarded by Nb addition, in particular, the growth of <110>//ND grains was retarded. However, the γ-fiber and {112}<110> grains developed during annealing even in the intercritical (α-γ) region. Consequently, the r-value increased as the content of Nb was increased due to the development of the intensity ratio of the <111>//ND texture to the <100>//ND texture, which is desirable for deep-drawable high strength steel sheets.
Authors: Matthew R. Barnett, Dale Atwell, Aiden G. Beer
Abstract: The present paper examines the development of grain size during the recrystallization of magnesium alloys and the influence the grain size has on the mechanical response. In magnesium alloys grain refinement improves the strength-ductility balance. This simultaneous increase in both strength and ductility is ascribed to the impact the grain size has on deformation twinning. The mechanisms by which the grain size is established during hot working are shown to be conventional dynamic recrystallization followed by post-dynamic recrystallization. The role of alloying addition on both of these reactions is briefly considered.
Authors: Jong K. Lee
Abstract: During hot working, deformation of metals such as copper or austenitic steels involves features of both diffusional flow and dislocation motion. As such, the true stress-true strain relationship depends on the strain rate. At low strain rates (or high temperatures), the stress-strain curve displays an oscillatory behavior with multiple peaks. As the strain rate increases (or as the temperature is reduced), the number of peaks on the stress-strain curve decreases, and at high strain rates, the stress rises to a single peak before settling at a steady-state value. It is understood that dynamic recovery is responsible for the stress-strain behavior with zero or a single peak, whereas dynamic recrystallization causes the oscillatory nature. In the past, most predictive models are based on either modified Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetic equations or probabilistic approaches. In this work, a delay differential equation is utilized for modeling such a stress-strain behavior. The approach takes into account for a delay time due to diffusion, which is expressed as the critical strain for nucleation for recrystallization. The solution shows that the oscillatory nature depends on the ratio of the critical strain for nucleation to the critical strain for completion for recrystallization. As the strain ratio increases, the stress-strain curve changes from a monotonic rise to a single peak, then to a multiple peak behavior. The model also predicts transient flow curves resulting from strain rate changes.

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