Recrystallization and Grain Growth III

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Authors: Ming Xin Huang, Pedro E.J. Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo, Sybrand van der Zwaag
Abstract: A non-equilibrium thermodynamics-based approach is proposed to predict the dislocation density and flow stress at the steady state of high temperature deformation. For a material undergoing dynamic recovery and recrystallization, it is found that the total dislocation density can be expressed as ( )2 ρ = λε& b , where ε& is the strain rate, b is the magnitude of the Burgers vector and λ is a dynamic recovery and recrystallization related parameter.
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Authors: Joo Hee Kang, Shiro Torizuka, Toshihiro Hanamura
Abstract: The microstructural change was observed during large strain high Z deformation with high strain rate in high temperature range using ultra low carbon steel. The finer grains were obtained as decreasing the deformation temperature and increasing the strain rate. And the fraction of high angle grain boundaries became higher in low deformation temperature and strong texture of ferrite recrystallized dynamically was measured such as ND//<100>,<111> and RD//<110>. The change of grain size could be analyzed by Zener-Hollomon parameter, whereas the duration has large effect on the deviation of expected grain size in deformation with high strain rate.
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Authors: Jin Young Kim, In Ok Shim, Soon Hyung Hong
Abstract: The effect of initial lamellar structure of β heat treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy on the globularization behavior during the multi-step forging was investigated. Specimens of different lamellar thicknesses were upsetted and stretched by side pressing repeatedly, i.e. multi-step forging, at the sub-transus temperature to break down the lamellar structure. The microstructural changes after multi-step forging were analyzed in the light of globularization behavior. The results showed that the thick lamellar structure was more difficult to be transformed to homogeneous equiaxed structure than thin lamellar structure.
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Authors: Se Jong Kim, Yi Gil Cho, Dong Woo Suh, Sung Joon Kim, Gyo Sung Kim, Heung Nam Han
Abstract: In general, plastic strain occurs over a certain stress, called yield stress. However, it has been reported that the permanent strain could happen during boundary migrating even under the extremely slight externally applied stress. In this study, we performed dilatometry experiments under the various compressive stresses and measured the amount of recrystallization and growth induced permanent strain. A new empirical constitutive equation was suggested to describe the recrystallization and growth induced plasticity. This equation was verified by comparing the calculated values with dilatometric experimental data under the various compressive stresses.
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Authors: J.H. Li, Ping Guang Xu, Yo Tomota, Yoshitaka Adachi
Abstract: The low carbon steel, SM490 was austenized at different temperatures followed by quenching into water to obtain martensite microstructures with different grain sizes. Then specimens were heated up to 600°C followed by warm-compression at έ=1.7x10-3 s-1 (strain rate) to investigate the dynamic recrystallization behavior. The influence of pre-tempering before compression was also investigated. The microstructure observations were performed with FE-SEM and orientation imaging analysis with EBSD. It is confirmed that the dynamic recrystallization occurred in the tempered martensite as well as the as-quenched marteniste, resulting in fine grained ferrite microstructure with about 2μm. The dynamic recrystallization grain size is hardly dependent on the block size of initial martensite.
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Authors: I. Mazurina, Oleg Sitdikov, Rustam Kaibyshev, Hiromi Miura, Taku Sakai
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Authors: Kazuto Okayasu, Hiroki Takekoshi, Hiroshi Fukutomi
Abstract: Uniaxial compression deformation is conducted on solid solution Al-3mass%Mg and Al-3mass%Mg-0.2mass%Sc with Al3Sc precipitates in the strain rates ranging from 1.0×10-4s-1 to 5.0×10-3s-1 at 723K. High temperature yielding is observed. Fiber texture is constructed in all the deformation conditions. While the main component of the fiber texture changes from {011} to {001} in Al-3mass%Mg alloy with an increase in strain rate, no big change in texture main component is seen for Al-3mass%Mg-0.2mass%Sc alloy with Al3Sc precipitates. It is experimentally shown that the development of {001} fiber texture can be attributed to the grain boundary migration.
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Authors: Behrang Poorganji, Takuto Yamaguchi, Tadashi Maki, G. Miyamoto, Tadashi Furuhara
Abstract: Microstructure change during warm deformation of tempered lath martensite in Fe-2mass%Mn-C alloys with different carbon contents in the range between 0.1 and 0.8mass%C was investigated. Specimens of the alloys after being quenched and tempered at 923K for 0.3ks were compressed by 50% with a strain rate varying from 10-3 to 10-4s-1 at 923K. EBSD analysis of the deformed microstructures has revealed that fine equiaxed ferrite (α) grains surrounded by high-angle boundaries are formed by dynamic recrystallization (DRX). As carbon content increases, the DRX α grain size decreases. This could be attributed to the change in volume fraction of the cementite (θ) phase as boundary dragging particles. The sub-micron θ particles can suppress the coarsening of the DRX α grains by exerting a pinning effect on grain boundary migration. Furthermore, the fraction of recrystallized region increases by increasing carbon content, presumably due to a decrease in the martensite block width as an initial α grain size and a larger volume fraction of hard second phase (θ) particles. Both of these should increase inhomogeneous plastic deformation which promotes the recrystallization. It seems that continuous DRX is responsible for the formation of ultrafine α grains in the tempered lath martensite.
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Authors: Lyudmila Ryabicheva, Dmytro Usatyuk
Abstract: In this paper, the phenomenological approach which connects the recrystallization parameters with thermomechanical characteristics of deformation is implemented to simulation of structural transformations. Two cases were considered, when the growth rate of recrystallized volumes is damping fast, and when a weak growth of recrystallized grains is observed. A pattern of structural states was obtained among the models with fast decrease in growth rate of recrystallized grain and weak grain growth. The abatement of the sensibility to the intensity of grain growth with increasing of strain rate was established. The function of recrystallized volume has oscillating behaviour depending on time and coefficient of recrystallization intensity. These results were confirmed by experimental researches of rheological behaviour of steels at low strain rates and high temperatures.
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Authors: Oleg Sitdikov, Taku Sakai, Elena Avtokratova, Rustam Kaibyshev, Kaneaki Tsuzaki, Yoshimi Watanabe
Abstract: Microstructural evolution taking place during equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was studied in a commercial coarse-grained Al-6%Mg-0.4%Mn-0.3%Sc alloy at a temperature of 300oC (~0.6Tm). Samples were pressed using route A to a total strain of 12 and quenched in water after each ECAP pass. ECAP at moderate-to-high strains leads to the formation of a bimodal grain structure with grain sizes of around 1 and 8 μm and volume fractions of 0.3 and 0.6, respectively. The development of new-grained regions has been shown to result from a concurrent operation of continuous dynamic recrystallization that occurs during deformation and static recrystallization that occurs during each ECAP cycle by the exposure of the as-deformed material in the die kept at 300oC for around 1.5 minutes. The microstructural development during warm-to-hot ECAP is discussed in terms of the enhanced driving force for recrystallization, resulting from the evolution of high-density dislocation substructures due to the localization of plastic flow and inhibition of recovery in the present alloy.
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