Eco-Materials Processing and Design IX

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Authors: Z. X. Yang, Kyu Hong Hwang, Jeong Bae Yoon, J.O. Kim, M.C. Kim
Abstract: Porous concretes with continuous voids have been gaining more interest as an ecological material because of their useful functions such as water permeability and adsorption ability. Especially, to make porous concrete much more environmentalized, micropores play a role of nest for microorganism and germs to live in. So micropore distribution and the size of micropores especially open pores are the key point . In this study, the size and distribution of micropores of porous concrete were effected by the AE agents to the cement pastes and then by the treating types, treating times, treating temperatures, and the vacuum pressure during the treating. And another group specimens were added sodium bicarbonate and alum. And then physical properties were examined, digital microscope was also used to observe the micropores sizes and distributions. Cracks were observed on the cement-aggregate joint when the amount and vacuum pressure increased. And high treating temperature shows no good on the bonding of cement paste and aggregate.
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Authors: Yuki Igarashi, Junichi Matsushita
Abstract: Biomaterials have been developed and used for bone grafting. Here, we study a fabrication of composite for bone tissue engineering by combining tricalcium phosphate and collagen. This tricalcium phosphate and collagen composite material may be applicable for use as a bone substitute. The β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is the one of the most investigated biomaterials due to its biocompatibility and good bioactivity. The β-TCP is used in a filling purpose to the bone defect region such as bone fractures. It is known that β-TCP substitutes it for a self bone in the body. The ingredient of the real bone is made of hydroxyapatite and collagen. In this study, the purpose was at giving the mechanical property and biological property which were near to a bone with β-TCP and collagen this time. We evaluate what kind of action collagen addition.
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Authors: Junichi Matsushita, Seong Ho Yang, Geum Chan Hwang
Abstract: The Na-bentonite with contained smectite was fabricated in order to observe their absorption and preservation about water. Absorption of fabricated specimens in the water and preservation of absorbed samples in the drying machine at 323 K was measured. It was obtained that absorption had been decreasing with increasing smectite. Absorption of As-received Na-bentonite was higher than absorption of As-received smectite. The preservation has been also decreased with increasing smectite was obtained. Na-bentonite with contained smectite were investigated the good absorption and preservation when the Na-bentonite containing smectite 5 mass %.
241
Authors: Junichi Matsushita, Seong Ho Yang, Geum Chan Hwang
Abstract: The Na-bentonite compact with absorbent polymer was fabricated in order to observe their absorption and preservation about water. Absorption of fabricated specimens in the water and preservation of absorbed samples in the drying machine at 323 K was measured. It was obtained that the absorption had been increasing with inhancing absorbent polymer. Absorption of As-received Na-bentonite was lower than absorption of As-received absorbent polymer. The preservation had been also increased with absorbent polymer was obtained. Na-bentonite compact with absorbent polymer ware investigated the good absorption and preservation when the Na-bentonite compact with absorbent polymer 40 mass %.
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Authors: Hom Nath Luitel, Takanori Watari, Toshio Torikai, Mitsunori Yada
Abstract: Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+, Dy3+ long persistent phosphors with different B, Eu and Dy contents were prepared by solid phase reaction at various temperatures in H2/N2=1/9 atmosphere. X- ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy observations showed that, when the phosphor was doped with 40 at% B, single dense Sr4Al14O25 phase was formed but for the samples with less than 40 at% B, mixed phases containing SrAl12O19 and SrAl2O4 were observed while for higher B content (100 at%) SrAl2B2O7 phases appeared. The phosphor showed emission peak centered at 500 nm with blue green color. When 40 at% of H3BO3 was added and doped with 4 at% of Eu and 8 at% of Dy, it showed the maximum initial intensity of 3170 mcd.m-2 and the longest persistency which is greater than 20 h over value of 5 mcd.m-2.
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Authors: Seong Joon Ahn, Jea Wook Woo, Soo Joon Ahn, Chul Geun Park, Seung Joon Ahn
Abstract: As the number of delicate semiconductor devices in the electric equipment increases, it is also getting more important to prohibit the surge wave from intruding the equipment. The better surge-wave protection can be achieved when we reduce the earth resistance further in the earthing system. It is practically best, however, to set an appropriate value of earth resistance if we consider the cost and effort required to install the earthing system. In this work, we demonstrated an example of extracting an optimized earth resistance by using a simulator that theoretically predicts the evolution of discharge current of the earthing system. The measure discharge currents of the real earthing system with the optimum earth resistance has confirmed that our method was efficient and useful.
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Authors: Xiao Yong Wang, Han Seung Lee, Ki Bong Park
Abstract: With the development of concrete industry, the necessity for utilizing waste materials and decreasing overall energy consumption is becoming increasingly obvious. Fly ash and granulated blast-furnace slag, which are used as blends of Portland cement, are waste materials produced in electric and energy industry, and concretes made with them can have properties similar to ones made with pure Portland cement at lower cost per unit volume. By using blended Portland cement, both ecology benefit and economic benefit can be achieved. Due to the pozzolanic reaction between calcium hydroxide and blended components, compared with ordinary Portland cement, hydration process of blended Portland cement is more complex. In this paper, based on a multi-component hydration model, a numerical model which can simulate heat evolution process of blended Portland cements is built. The influence of water to cement ratio, curing temperature, particle size distribution of cement paste and blended Portland material, and cement mineral components on heat evolution process is considered. The prediction result agrees well with experiment result.
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Authors: Xiao Yong Wang, Han Seung Lee, Seung Min Lim
Abstract: Fly ash and granulated blast-furnace slag, which are used as blends of Portland cement, are waste materials produced in electric and energy industry. Due to excellent durability, low heat of hydration, energy-saving, resource-conserving, and generally less expensive than ordinary Portland cement, blends Portland cements is used increasingly in construction industry. Both ecology benefit and economic benefit can be achieved by using blended Portland cement. Addition of blended components to cement, especially such as fly ash or silica fume, will lead to a densification of the microstructure. The autogenous shrinkage deformation will increase and the following autogenous shrinkage crack will do harm to durability of concrete structure. In this paper, based on the multi-component hydration model, a numerical program is built to predict autogenous shrinkage of ordinary Portland cement and blended Portland cement. The numerical program considers the influence of water to cement ratio, curing temperature, particle size distribution, cement mineral components on hydration process and autogenous shrinkage. The prediction result agrees well with experiment result.
261
Authors: Shun Jian Xu, Guan Jun Qiao, Di Chen Li, Hong Jie Wang, Tian Jian Lu
Abstract: We used ethylene glycol as pore-forming agent to prepare porous carbon with interconnected pores derived from phenol–formaldehyde resin. The mixture of resins and glycol was by polymerization and pyrolysis monolithic material of porous carbon with interconnected mesopores and a narrow pore size range. The average pore size of the porous carbon obtained was 28.2 nm. The nitrogen adsorption isotherm for the porous carbon exhibited type IV isotherm, which corresponded to mesoporous adsorption. The method could endow porous carbon with BET surface area and pore volume about 500 m2/g and 0.607 cm3/g, respectively. The mesopores in porous carbon formed as a result of phase separation of resin-rich phase and glycol-rich phase at polymerization and remove of glycol-rich at subsequent pyrolysis.
265
Authors: M. J. Jeong, Chang Hwan Seo, Yeong Hwan Song, K.J. Kang, Bo Young Hur
Abstract: Fabrication of Aluminum foam with near net shape has been investigated by powder metallurgy method and conventional pouring method. PM method is good for fabrication of near net shape foam, but it needs high cost compared with pouring method. More cost-effective methods are needed to make near net shape al foam to be applied various field. Therefore, novel method for fabrication Al foam was researched in this paper. In order to prepare near shape Al foams with homogeneous pore structures, the so-called upward foaming method was designed and applied. By using this method, two kinds of molds were designed, one is stainless mold used for melting and foaming Al and another is the plaster mold with near net shape. The fabrication procedures of near net shape Al foam are as following: (1) a quantity of Al ingot was melted in the stainless mold; (2) Ca particles was added in the Al melt to increase its viscosity; (3) TiH2 was introduced in the thickened Al melt to make melt being foamed; (4) the plaster mold was put on the stainless steel one to make enlarging Al melt foam fill with the plaster one; (4) the plaster mold was removed and was cooled. In this study, in order to get near net Al foam with relative good pore structures, the plaster molds were designed with three different upside styles and their effects on the pore structures (pore size, porosity and cell wall thickness) of Al foams were investigated. The results showed that the Al foam had the relative good pore structures when the plaster mold with a void was applied.
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