Nanomaterials by Severe Plastic Deformation IV

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Authors: Ling Jiang, Maria Teresa Pérez-Prado, Oscar A. Ruano, Michael E. Kassner
Abstract: The bond strength of ultrafine grained Zr with a grain size of 0.4 µm, fabricated by accumulative roll bonding (ARB), was assessed. The shear strength of the bond was estimated to be about 20% of the shear fracture strength of the as processed metal, a ratio significantly higher than that found in other materials processed by similar methods. The favorable degree of bonding achieved is attributed to the high ductility of Zr as well as to the high reductions used during the ARB process.
Authors: Ke Jing Yang, Yulia Ivanisenko, J. Markmann, Hans Jorg Fecht
Abstract: In situ tensile tests were conducted on ultra fine grained (UFG) pure Pd and Pd-x% Ag (x=20, 60) alloys of different stacking fault energies (SFEs) with the aim to study the general features of the deformation process of UFG materials as well as the peculiarities brought by the alloying. Grey scale correlation analysis (GSCA) was used to determine the true strain as well as the surface flow within the gauge length. It was shown that the largest values of strength and uniform elongation were obtained in Pd-20% Ag alloy. The GSCA revealed different macroscopic flow processes in this sample as compared with pure Pd and Pd-60% Ag alloy. In particular, pure Pd and Pd-60% Ag alloy demonstrated rapid localization of plastic flow in the neck area, whereas Pd-20% Ag samples showed a large contribution of homogenous deformation even after neck formation. It has been proposed that larger strain hardening capacity of Pd-20% Ag alloy is related to its lower SFE as compared with that of pure Pd: the lower is the SFE, the more difficult is the cross slip and climb of split dislocations, which leads to enhanced dislocation storage and, ultimately, to increased strain hardening. At the same time, further decrease of SFE in Pd-60% Ag sample leads to development of deformation twinning and consequent reduction of strain hardening. The dimpled structure of fracture surfaces in the samples will also be discussed in relationship to these findings.
Authors: Nong Gao
Abstract: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a thermal analysis technique that measures the energy absorbed or released by a sample as a function of temperature or time. DSC has wide application for analysis of solid state reactions and solid-liquid reactions in many different materials. In recent years, DSC has been applied to analyze materials and alloys processed through Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD). The basic principle of SPD processing is that a very high strain is introduced into materials which achieve significant grain refinement and improve properties of materials. This review paper presents some recent examples of the applications of DSC for materials subjected to SPD, especially by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing and High-Pressure Torsion.
Authors: Bartlomiej J. Bonarski, Erhard Schafler, Borys Mikułowski, Michael Zehetbauer
Abstract: Single crystals of technical purity Magnesium (99.8 wt.%) of initial orientations [ ] 2 1 10 and [ ] 2 2 11 were subjected to HPT deformation at room temperature up to strains of 10. The microstructural evolution has been analyzed by X-ray microtexture investigations and by in-situ stress-strain measurements. The results can be described in terms of shear arising from HPT deformation and - with higher strains - in terms of recrystallization. In crystals with hard orientation[ ] 2 2 11 , these features occur at smaller strains than in crystals with soft orientation [ ] 2 1 10 , i.e. with higher symmetry. In general, the observed textures and strength variations are much stronger than those reported for fcc HPT deformed metals.
Authors: Nina Koneva, Eduard Kozlov, N.A. Popova, A.N. Zhdanov, M.V. Fedorischeva
Abstract: The paper presents the results of the transmission electron microscopic (TEM) investigation of the structure and phase composition of nanocrystalline copper obtained by the severe plastic deformation using the high pressure torsion (HPT) method. Special attention is paid to the triple junctions of grain boundaries. It was established that the triple junctions contained the partial disclinations and particles of the secondary phases. The dependences of such junction fractions on the deformation were measured of the formation at nanocrystalline copper. The phase analyses of the secondary phase structure were carried out, the sizes of the phase particles and their volume fractions were determined. The bending – torsion of the crystal lattice arising near the triple junctions was measured. The problem of the long – range stress field screening was considered.
Authors: G.V. Preetham Kumar, Chakkingal Uday
Abstract: Commercial purity Ti is an important candidate material for orthopedic and dental implants because of its high specific strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility. However, for biomedical applications as a replacement for Ti-6Al-4V alloy that is currently used, improvement in strength of CP Ti is necessary. This can be achieved by using severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes like equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at warm working temperatures followed by conventional processing at room temperatures. This requires adequate workability after ECAP. In this study, the workability of CP Ti after warm ECAP has been investigated. Specimens of CP Ti, 17 mm in diameter, were extruded using processing route Bc through an ECAP die with an angle of 120◦ between the two intersecting channels and at a temperature of approximately 400oC. Workability testing was carried out using collar type compression specimens by upsetting the specimens between flat platens till the onset of cracking. Workability diagrams have been plotted as a function of axial and hoop strains at failure. The results show that processing by ECAP lead to only minor reductions in workability of CP Ti. The tensile strength is enhanced considerably by this process.
Authors: L.R. Botvina, Marat R. Tyutin, V.P. Levin, Y.A. Demina, I.A. Panteleev, Sergey V. Dobatkin
Abstract: The mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms of the 0.09%C-0.08%Mo-0.03%Nb- 0.06%V steel in the initial state and with the ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure obtained by equalchannel angular pressing (ECAP) have been estimated. The investigation included the static and cyclic tensile tests, the impact tests at room and lower temperatures with automatic recording of force-displacement diagram, and the analysis of both the fracture surface microrelief and the evolution of plastic deformation zone by replica method. It is established that the grain refinement increases the ultimate strength and yield strength, but decreases plasticity and impact toughness and raises fatigue growth rate and the critical temperature of ductile–brittle transition. The dynamic fracture toughness of the material after ECAP as compared with that of the material with the initial structure decreases due to the raising of the critical brittleness temperature.
Authors: Ming Yi Zheng, S.W. Xu, Wei Min Gan, Kun Wu, Shigeharu Kamado, Yo Kojima, Heinz Günter Brokmeier
Abstract: An ultrafine-grained (UFG) Mg-5.0wt%Zn-0.9wt%Y-0.2wt%Zr magnesium alloy with a grain size of about 0.8 µm was produced by subjecting the extruded alloy to equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) for 8 passes at 473 K. Compressive testing was performed on the ECAPed alloy in a temperature range from 423 K to 523 K and under strain rates from 1.67×10-3 to 1.67×10-1 s-1. The ultrafine grains of the ECAPed alloy were stable during compression because of the presence of the dispersion of a fine quasicrystal I-phase and of precipitates in the alloy, which restricted grain growth. The activation energy for the compression at the temperature range from 423 K to 523 K is close to the value for grain boundary diffusion in magnesium, indicating that the compressive deformation is mainly controlled by grain-boundary sliding.
Authors: Marcello Cabibbo
Abstract: Microstructure evolution with equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using route Bc, that is a 90° axial rotation of the billet between passes, up to 8 passes, was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The study has been focused on the induced development of boundary misorientation and spacing toward microstructure refinement. Cell (low-angle) and grain (high-angle) misorientation and spacing were determined from about 250 boundaries per pass of ECAP, systematically using whether Kikuchi patterns or Moiré fringes, these latter where possible. The average cell size and misorientation saturate within the first two passes. Misorientation and spacing of high-angle boundaries decrease with the number of passes. After 8 passes, mean cell size is ≈ 1.3 µm and the fraction of high-angle boundaries is ≈ 0.7. Differences in rate of grain structure evolution per pass are linked to differences in ability of dislocations introduced in new passes to recombine with the existing ones. As ECAP strain rises, the misorientation distribution develops strong deviations from the MacKenzie distribution for statistical grain orientation. This is interpreted as a result of the tendency to form equiaxed grains in a textured grain structure.
Authors: Dogan Arpacay, Sang Bong Yi, Miloš Janeček, Adem Bakkaloglu, Lothar Wagner
Abstract: The microstructure evolution during high pressure torsion and its influence on the mechanical properties of AZ80 magnesium alloy is presented in this study. Significant grain refinement was observed after high pressure torsion, while the homogeneity of the grain structure increases with the number of revolutions. Grain size decreases to about 50 nm after 15 revolutions. The microhardness profiles measured at through-thickness and through-width directions show no significant variation at different positions of the sample. Moreover, the negligible effect of the revolution number on the microhardness value was observed.

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