The synthesis and surface modification of ZnO nanoparticles, achieved through a controlled precipitation reaction using NaOH as precipitating agent with a 0.2 molar ratio were studied. The surface modification was carried out through a chemical hydrolysis reaction at 80°C for 6 h, in order to promote better adhesion between inorganic particles and a polymer matrix when they were used in composite materials. Both 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and difunctional alcohol spiroorthocarbonate (SOC DIOL) were used as modifying agents in a 0.5:1 ratio with respect to ZnO nanoparticles. According to x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron transmission microscopy with scanning modulus (STEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the ZnO crystalline structure did not change after treatment. Surface modification was performed in order to subsequently use ZnO nanoparticles in medical antimicrobial devices.