The present paper shows an overview related to the preparation and characterization of different nano-materials such as: silica, alumina, di- and tri-calcium silicates and a composite in the ternary CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system. These nano-materials are related to the construction area so some basic tests are carried out to evaluate their cementitious and/or pozzolanic behavior. The nano-ceramics have been synthesized via hydrolysis and condensation of aqueous sol-gel method modified with surfactants using different precursors such as: tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2.4H2O), sodium silicate (Na2O.SiO2), aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (Al(NO3)3•9H2O) and an industrial aluminum hydroxide (gibbsite). The synthesis parameters such as: pH, temperature, kind of surfactants, etc., are reported. To characterize the structural, chemical composition, particle size and morphology of the nanoparticles, different techniques such as: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) are used.