In the paper, the study was conducted on the characteristics of microstructures and orientations of UFG pure copper and 6061 aluminum alloy prepared by AARB, ECAP and CECC severe plastic deformation processes, in which SEM, TEM, EBSD and X-ray diffraction techniques were employed. The result of the study shows that microstructures, mainly composed of subgrains and dislocation kinks, are profuse in the UFG materials by the three SPDs. These kinds of microstructures have the strength of the materials much enhanced and the toughness heavily decreased. In these processes, shear deformation makes gains get finer and finer with the existence of the preferred orientations in the prepared UFG materials. Nevertheless, CECC shows the heaviest effect on the grain refining and the preferred orientation weakening.