To understand and model grain refinement in severe plastic deformation, some analysis of Nb single crystals has been carried out in previous work. To bridge the gap with normal polycrystalline materials, supplementary experiments on large polycrystals, deformed at moderate strains appear to be necessary to explain the grain subdivision step by step. In the present work, successive uniaxial compression tests have been carried out on a large grained Niobium polycrystal up to height reductions of 30% with small strain increments. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis was done after each compression step to characterize the evolution of orientation and microstructures. It is observed that a “rotation front” forms inside the grain and moves with increasing strain from one side to the other side of the grain. In one grain, this process results in a grain boundary affected zone in the vicinity of the grain boundary. Both static orientation evolution inside the grain and historical evolution of the average orientation have been studied, which indicates that the grain orientation rotates around one of the (110) poles at low strain.