Residual Stresses in Multilayer Welds with Different Martensitic Transformation Temperatures Analyzed by High-Energy Synchrotron Diffraction
Low Transformation Temperature (LTT) alloys were developed in order to control the residual stress development by the martensitic phase transformation already during cooling of the weld metal. The positive effect of such LTT alloys on the mitigation of detrimental tensile residual stresses during welding has already been confirmed on the basis of individual laboratory tests. Within the current project it was experimentally investigated whether the phase transformation mechanisms are effective under increased restraint due to multi-pass welding of thicker specimens. The local residual stress depth distribution was analyzed non-destructively for V-type welds processed by arc welding using energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction (EDXRD). The use of high energy (20 keV to 150 keV) EDXRD allowed for the evaluation of diffraction spectra containing information of all contributing phases. As the investigated LTT alloy contains retained austenite after welding, this phase was also considered for stress analysis. The results show in particular how the constraining effect of increased thickness of the welded plates and additional deposited weld metal influences the level of the residual stresses in near weld surface areas. While the longitudinal residual stresses were reduced in general, in the transition zone from the weld to the heat-affected zone (HAZ) compressive residual stresses were found.
Paolo Scardi and Cristy L. Azanza Ricardo
A. Kromm et al., "Residual Stresses in Multilayer Welds with Different Martensitic Transformation Temperatures Analyzed by High-Energy Synchrotron Diffraction", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 681, pp. 37-42, 2011