Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction is an ideal method for examining the residual stress and texture. The most dramatic development in two-dimensional x-ray diffractometry involves three critical devices, including x-ray sources, x-ray optics and detectors. The recent development in brilliant x-rays sources and high efficiency x-ray optics provided high intensity x-ray beam with the desired size and divergence. Correspondingly, the detector used in such a high performance system requires the capability to collect large two-dimensional images with high counting rate and high resolution. This paper introduces the diffraction vector approach in two-dimensional x-ray diffraction for stress and texture analysis, and an innovative large area detector based on the MikroGap™ technology.