The texture evolution in the plastic deformation layer of the pure iron sample after the surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was discussed through electron backscattering and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results showed that: the surface layer of the iron sample can be subdivided into four sub-layers along the depth from the top surface: nano-sized regime, submicro-sized regime, micro-sized regime and deformed coarse-grained regime. Nano-sized regime possesses random crystallographic orientations. But in submicro-sized regime and micro-sized regime, the //ND fiber texture is the prominent texture with a strong orientation of (110)[1-11]. Increasing treatment time during SMAT process does not change the components of texture in plastic deformation layer, only strengthen their orientation density.