Casting Single Crystal Silicon: Novel Defect Profiles from BP Solar's Mono2 TM Wafers
A novel crystal growth method has been developed for the production of ingots, bricks and wafers for solar cells. Monocrystallinity is achievable over large volumes with minimal dislocation incorporation. The resulting defect types, densities and interactions are described both microscopically for wafers and macroscopically for the ingot, looking closely at the impact of the defects on minority carrier lifetime. Solar cells of 156 cm2 size have been produced ranging up to 17% in efficiency using industrial screen print processes.
A. Cavallini, H. Richter, M. Kittler and S. Pizzini
N. Stoddard et al., "Casting Single Crystal Silicon: Novel Defect Profiles from BP Solar's Mono2 TM Wafers", Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 131-133, pp. 1-8, 2008