The Exoskeleton of the American Lobster – From Texture to Anisotropic Properties
The exoskeleton of the crustacean Homarus americanus, the American lobster, is a biological multiphase composite consisting of a crystalline organic matrix (chitin), crystalline biominerals (calcite), amorphous calcium carbonate and proteins. One special structural aspect is the occurrence of pronounced crystallographic orientations and resulting directional anisotropic mechanical properties. The crystallographic textures of chitin and calcite have been measured by wide-angle Bragg diffraction, calculating the Orientation Distribution Function (ODF) from pole figures by using the series expansion method according to Bunge. A general strong relationship can be established between the crystallographic and the resulting mechanical and physical properties.
H. Klein and R.A. Schwarzer
L. Raue et al., "The Exoskeleton of the American Lobster – From Texture to Anisotropic Properties ", Solid State Phenomena, Vol. 160, pp. 287-294, 2010