Reproducible Synthesis of Magnetic Carbon through Ion Implantation
Comparative study of magnetic properties of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite irradiated with different particles suggests that ions (H+, He+, C+) with the energy in the range of hundreds keV yield larger values of induced magnetization compared to the protons with the energy of several MeV. These values increase with ion fluence but abruptly decrease when the concentration of interstitial defects becomes so large that the graphite stacking sequence is collapsed.
T. L. Makarova "Reproducible Synthesis of Magnetic Carbon through Ion Implantation", Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 168-169, pp. 505-513, 2011