Advances in Materials and Systems Technologies

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Authors: A.C. Igboanugo, E.Francis Ekhuemelo
Abstract: This study reports on the development in road traffic accidents in Nigeria since 1994. The preliminary survey took Edo state, one of the 36 constituent States of Nigeria, as a case study. An intervention model, which is a combination of an ARIMA noise and dichotomous models, was employed in analyzing a seven-year monthly accident time series obtained from the Federal Office of Statistics and the Federal Road Safety Corps of Nigeria. The Durbin Watson’s test statistic, used to ascertain the adequacy of our ARIMA predictive model, suggested that the intervention model adopted has a good fit. The study points up a significant reduction in the rate of road traffic accidents through multiple policy interventions of Nigeria.
Authors: S.Y. Bassi
Abstract: To achieve meaningful and sustainable development of Africa, the continent must of necessity look inwards particularly in the areas of Science, Engineering, technology capacity building; and this is in view of the growing trends in globalization. There must be an active collaboration and networking between research and industry on the one hand and between researchers across the nations of Africa. This will promote technical cooperation which is sine qua non to the development of the continent. A survey project on viable technological invention and innovation in Engineering Research and Development (R&D) in Nigeria and their impact on industry development by the Directorate of Technical Cooperation in Africa (DTCA) indicates that: (a) though quite some achievements have been recorded in this sector, most of the inventions and innovations are still at the level of incubation: (b) funding is a critical factor limiting development of the Engineering Research and Development (R&D) sector: (c) there is minimum linkage and collaboration among researchers, as well as between Research and industry, (d) the engineering base remains small, fragmented and operating below the thresholds that would enable it make any meaningful impact on industrial development: (e) brain drain is a key challenge as some of the best and brightest engineers migrate to greener pastures mainly in the western countries. This paper review the result of this project and argues for concerted efforts by all relevant stakeholders to promotes full development and commercialization of viable inventions and innovations towards the rapid development of Africa. The role of the DTCA in this is also highlighted.
Authors: Samuel B. Adejuyigbe
Abstract: In this paper the author used his personal experience having passed through all the facets of technological education specializing in Mechanical Engineering to solve the problem of noncontinuity of technological educational system. Critical Path Method (CPM) was used to develop a model for the continuity of Technological Education using Nigeria and Ghana as a case study. The paper completely eliminates the terminal certificates awarded in some Nigerian and Ghanaian Technological Institutions. Other educational lines like: Education, Art and Sciences were compared with that of Technological line and solutions were proffered to the identified problems.
Authors: N. Hassiotis, G. Petropoulos, C. Hatzopoulos, N. Vaxevanidis
Abstract: In this study, the correlation between corrosion behaviour and formations, and topographic characteristics of machined surfaces of stainless steel AISI 304 is investigated. Face turning was performed for combinations of cutting conditions, leading to four differing surface patterns owing to regular chip formation, very small chip thickness effect and built-up-edge formation. To simulate industrial and environmental corrosion two corrosion tests were applied i.e. alternate immersion method and exposure to FeCl3 solution. Different corrosion behaviour was revealed through stereoscopic examination of the surfaces with regard to machining conditions and the best global anti-corrosive performance was exhibited by the surfaces generated under regular chip formation.
Authors: A.S. Adavbiele, L.A. Salami
Abstract: This study employed Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD solution to configure the entire shape of the nozzle. The problems arising from the initial geometrical shape obtained using one-dimensional approach were highlighted. Then with a two-dimensional approach and coded FORTRAN programs, the convergent portion was handled with time matching CFD while the divergent portion was handled with space matching CFD. A post-processing results analysis shows that the results are in agreement with that obtained with the analytical approach. This research has demonstrated significant and tangible benefits of the use of CFD numerical experimentation to optimize the shape of the nozzle. These benefits are not solely limited to performance enhancements, but solution reliability and algorithm development.
Authors: John A. Akpobi, P. Oboh
Abstract: This paper describes computer-aided-design software which accurately and efficiently designs internal combustion engine (I.C.) parts with the aid of Microsoft Visual Basic Object - oriented programming language. In addition to numerically outputting solutions (design parameters), the software also provides graphical solutions which facilitates easy visualization of trends in the variation of the solutions with important parameters. We then illustrate its accuracy and efficiency with some benchmark examples.
Authors: A.C. Igboanugo, S. Amiebenomo
Abstract: There are several reasons why industrial engineers need to optimize process layout designs. This paper points out the justification and discusses the qualitative and quantitative techniques involved in the determination of an optimal process layout for a pilot alkyd resin and its end products manufacturing system. It also spotlights practical decisions required for achieving optimality in the design process. It is the belief of the authors that with some improvements on the final layout, our proposed layout will be a ballpark of eco-factory moored on green manufacturing.
Authors: S.E. Ogbeide, C.O. Okieimen, O. Anyiador, V. Odukwe
Abstract: The design of a fixed bed adsorption unit using adsorbent produced from locally available palm kernel shell has been investigated using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Various mathematical models were considered but the simpler and more convenient Wheeler-Robell model was adopted in the design. The model was adopted in designing a template with Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet. A Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet was developed for the design. The template was used to determine the design parameters, such as length of column, diameter of bed, bed height and pressure drop across the bed.
Authors: G.A. Badmus, N.A. Adeyemi, M. Ikheloa

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