Evaluation of Hard Materials Using Eco-Attributes
Hard materials based on Alumina (AN), Silicon Carbide (SC), Boron Carbide/Nitride (BC/N), Zirconia (ZN), and alike are often used to produce abrasive grains and coat cutting tools. These materials improve the performance of grinding/machining operations by providing an enhanced productivity, a longer grinder/tool life, and a better surface finish. On the other hand, they might leave some burdens on the environment. Therefore, eco-attributes (i.e., energy consumption, CO2 emission, NOX/SOX emission, water usage, recycle fraction, etc.) of these hard materials should be used to make an informed decision. This study deals with this issue and provides an evaluation of AN, SC, BC/N, and ZN based hard materials in terms of CO2 emission, NOX emission, SOX emission, and water usage. The outcomes of this study are useful for analyzing grinding and other abrasive processes for achieving eco-manufacturing.
M. Mamunur Rashid et al., "Evaluation of Hard Materials Using Eco-Attributes", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 325, pp. 693-698, 2011