Microstructural Design for Attaining High-Strain-Rate Superplasticity in Oxide Materials
Factors limiting the strain rate of superplastic deformation in oxide ceramics are discussed from existing knowledge about the mechanisms of high-temperature plastic deformation and intergranular cavitation. The discussion leads to the following guide: simultaneously controlling the initial grain size, diffusivity, dynamic grain growth, homogeneity of microstructure and the number of residual defects is essential to attain high-strain-rate superplasticity. Along this guide, high-strain-rate superplasticity (HSRS) is attainable in some oxides consisting of tetragonal zirconia, α-alumina and a spinel phase: tensile ductility reached 300-2500% at a strain rate of 0.01-1.0 s-1. Post-deformation microstructure indicates that some secondary phases may suppress cavitation damage and thereby enhance HSRS. The guide is also essential to lower the limit of deformation temperature for a given strain rate. In monolithic tetragonal zirconia, grain-size refinement combined with doping of aliovalnt cations such as Mg2+, Ti4+ and Al3+ led to HSRS at 1350 °C.
K. Hiraga et al., "Microstructural Design for Attaining High-Strain-Rate Superplasticity in Oxide Materials", Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 45, pp. 923-932, 2006