Advances in Fracture and Failure Prevention

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Authors: Duck Hoi Kim, Soon Il Moon, Jae Hoon Kim
Abstract: By contrast with static fracture toughness determination, the methodology for dynamic fracture toughness characterization is not yet standardized and appropriate approaches must be devised. The accurate determination of the dynamic stress intensity factors must take into account inertial effects. Most methods for dynamic fracture toughness measurement are experimentally complex. However, dynamic fracture toughness determination using strain measurement is extremely attractive in terms of experimental simplicity. In this study, dynamic fracture toughness tests using strain measurement are performed. High rate tension and charpy impact tests are carried out for titanium alloy, maraging steel and Al alloys. In the case of evaluating the dynamic fracture toughness using high rate tension and charpy impact tests, load or energy methods are used commonly. The consideration about inertial effects is essential, because load or energy methods are influenced by inertia. In contrast, if the position for optimum response of strain is provided, dynamic fracture toughness evaluation using strain near crack tip is more accurate. To obtain the position for optimum response of strain, a number of gages were attached at angles of 60°. Reliability for experimental results is evaluated by Weibull analysis. The method presented in this paper is easy to implement in a laboratory and it provides accurate results compared to results from load or energy methods influenced by inertia.
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Authors: Moon Saeng Kim, Hyung Seop Shin, Hyeon Chul Lee, Ho Jong Kim
Abstract: In order to investigate the possibility of punching process of brittle material by ball impact, effects of impact angle on cone crack formation in impact-loaded soda-lime glass were evaluated experimentally. Evaluated were also contact area between specimen and sealing, and the optimal condition for cone crack formation in glass plates by impact with small steel balls. It has been found that lateral and radial cracks gradually developed asymmetrically. However, the perfect cone cracks were found to develop almost symmetrically. As the impact angle increased, the growth rate of cone cracks decreased. Regardless of the impact angle, the PMMA sealing was more effective for perfect cone formation than Aluminum and Polyurethane sealing. Thus, the application for industrial technology for hole (or nozzle) punching process of the brittle materials is expected to be feasible, based upon proper selection of sealing materials.
319
Authors: Shao Chiu Shih, Yong Zhong Wang, Bing Yu, Li Li Wang
Abstract: A new dynamical measurement technique that combines PVDF film piezoelectric gages with resistor strain gages in conventional SHPB is developed to study the dynamical mechanical behavior of low-impedance aluminum foam. The average value of the stresses measured by PVDF gages from the front face and the back face of the specimen at each time is taken as the effective stress history of the specimen. This effective stress history is combined with the measured axial strain history in the specimen by eliminating time t. Then the initial part of the stress-strain relationship of the material can be determined reliably. From its slope, the dynamical Young’s modulus of low-impedance aluminum foam can be determined. For the aluminum foam with a density of 1.2×103 Kg/cm3 at a given strain rate (ε& =814/s), we get: E =1.15 GPa, G=0.44GPa.
325
Authors: Akira Shimamoto, Ryo Kubota
Abstract: In this study, dynamic behavior of the crack under dynamic biaxial stress was investigated concerning of these situations. Specimen shape was assumed to be a biaxial fracture, and the load device was with a hydraulic high-speed biaxial experiment device, which this laboratory had developed. Dynamic stress intensity factors and strain behaviors in the crack tip, angle of the pre-crack and crack propagation direction, and relate about the dynamic fracture toughness value under a dynamic biaxial stress was studied.
331
Authors: Ign Wiratmaja Puja, T. Hardono, Khalid, M.F. Adziman
Abstract: The Indonesian railway transportation has adventages in term of capacity, efficiency, trafic, and safety compared to the other types of land transportations. At present, the Indonesian Railway Company has 519 locomotives, and 1643 passenger cars, that transport about 184 million man-trip each year[1,2]. Unfortunately, the rate of train collisions in Indonesian railway system was very high. In the last ten years, 2352 train accidents have happened which claimed 997 lives and left 2638 people injured. The record shows that 110 of those accidents were train to train collisions[1]. This paper consider the structural impact behavior of Indonesian passenger railway car subject to collision forces. This characteristic is very important parameter for passenger protection during the course of collision[3-5]. The vehicle structure should be able to absorb the huge impact energy or impact force to ensure the passenger safety[6-9]. The impact energy of cars-train is evaluated using the principle of multibody dynamics[10,11]. The vehicle structure under impact load is analyzed using the finite element method. The principal of symmetry is adopted, so the collision scene could be simulated as collision between the vehicle with a rigid wall. The analysis result shows that the structure is collapse at the passenger area (saloon) which is in agreement with the real collision. Modification is proposed to protect the passenger area by introducing crush zone area and impact energy absorber.
337
Authors: Chyan Bin Hwu, Won Jun Lee
Abstract: By employing the Stroh formalism for plane anisotropic thermoelasticity, closed-form solutions for the orders of stress and heat flux singularities of multi-material wedges have been obtained. Several different boundary conditions are considered in this paper such as insulated or isothermal as well as free-free or fixed-fixed or free-fixed or fixed-free wedge boundaries. The solutions show that the singular orders are influenced by the wedge configurations (n wedge angles), boundary conditions, elastic constants and heat conduction coefficients, but are independent of the thermal moduli.
345
Authors: Seiji Ioka, Shiro Kubo
Abstract: When two materials are bonded, the free-edge stress singularity usually develops near the intersection of the interface and the free-surface. Fracture in bonded dissimilar materials may therefore occur from an interface crack which develops at the intersection of interface and free-surface. Free-edge stress singularity is very important in the evaluation of strength of bonded dissimilar materials. In this study, the relationship between the stress intensity factor of a small edge crack on interface of bonded dissimilar materials and the intensity of free-edge stress singularity of bonded dissimilar materials with no crack under external mechanical loading was investigated numerically by using the boundary element method. The relationship was also investigated theoretically by using the principle of superposition. The results of numerical analyses were compared with those of theoretical analyses. It was found that stress intensity factors of small edge crack on interface K1 and K2 were proportional to the intensity of free-edge stress singularity of bonded dissimilar materials Kσ without crack irrespective of the combination of materials. The numerically determined proportional coefficient between K1 and Kσ agreed well with the theoretical one, and was not affected by crack length when proper normalizations were applied. From these results, it is suggested that stress intensity factor of small edge crack on interface can be used as a strength criterion of interface of bonded dissimilar materials.
351
Authors: B.S. Choi, Chia Yen Lee, Young Suck Chai
Abstract: Initiation and propagation of interfacial crack along bimaterial interface are considered in this study. A series of interfacial crack initiation and propagation experiments are conducted using the biaxial loading device for various mixed modes. Normal crack opening displacement (NCOD) is measured near crack front by a crack opening interferometry and used for extracting fracture parameters. From mixed mode interfacial crack initiation experiments, large increase in toughness with shear components is observed. Initial velocity of crack propagation is very dependent upon the mode-mixes. It increased with positive mode-mix due to the increase of stress singularities ahead of crack front and decreased with negative mode-mix resulting from the increase of the degree of compressive stress behind the crack front. Crack propagation was less accelerated with positive mode-mix than the negative mode-mix.
357
Authors: Xi Shu Wang, Xi Qiao Feng, Xing Wu Guo
Abstract: This work focuses on the damage mechanisms and the resulting failure behavior of structures made of anodized coatings on magnesium alloy substrates. The failure of anodized coatings of about 30µm thickness on AZ91D substrates was investigated under three-points bending loading with online scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The obtained SEM images show that void nucleation and crack initiation occurs mainly at sites near the coating-substrate interface, and the evolutionary microcracking damage diffuses from the interface to the coating surface and also to the bulk substrate with the increasing in loading.
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Authors: Taisuke Sasaki, Hidetoshi Somekawa, Akira Takara, Yukio Nishikawa, Kenji Higashi
Abstract: Three kinds of thin AZ31 wrought magnesium alloys sheets were used in order to investigate the influence of the second phase particles on fracture toughness. From the theoretical model, the ratio of λp/dp would be estimated 5~ 6. On the other hand, from the microstructural observation, average particle spacing on each material was sample A: 13.1µm, sample B: 14.1, and sample C: 12 µ. In addition, average particle size on each sample was sample A: 2.1, sample B: 1.9, and sample C: 2.3 µm. Therefore, the ratio of λp/dp calculated from fracture surface observation would be predicted 6 ~ 7. In comparison with the result of the prediction by theoretical analysis was in good agreement with the result of fracture toughness observation. It was found that the variation in plane-strain fracture toughness on AZ31 were affected by both of particle spacing and particle size.
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