Introduction: Marrow mesenchymal cells contain stem cells and can regenerate tissues. We previously reported the clinical application of autologous cultured bone to regeneration therapy. However, in cases with low numbers of active cells, culture is often unsatisfactory. If frozen marrow cells retain their osteogenic potential, we could clinically use them in regeneration therapy as alternatives to high active cells obtained from youngsters. Here, we examined osteogenic potential of frozen human mesenchymal stem cells in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) using biochemical and histological analyses. Method: Marrow fluid was aspirated from the human iliac bone of a 46-year-old man with lumbar canal stenosis during surgery. Two weeks after primary culture in standard medium, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were trypsinized for the preparation of a cell suspension, and cells were concentrated to 106 cells/ml by centrifugation. Cells were kept at – 80 °C until use. To impregnate porous hydroxyapatite (HA) with rhBMP, 1 3g rhBMP/20 3l 0.1 % trifluoroacetic acid was applied on HA, and then desiccated under vacuum. In the present study, we used 4 subgroups: BMSC/rhBMP/HA, BMSC/HA, rhBMP/HA, and HA only. HA constructs from the 4 subgroups were implanted at subcutaneous sites on the back of 5-week-old nude mice (BALB/cA Jcl-nu). Eight weeks after implantation, implanted HA constructs were harvested, and biochemical and histological analyses were performed. Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and human osteocalcin (hOs) levels were measured. Results and Discussion: ALP activity and hOs in the BMSC/BMP/HA subgroup were 2 or 3 times that in the BMSC/HA subgroup. Histological analysis showed that significant bone formation was observed in these two subgroups, and supported biochemical data. However, in the BMP/HA and HA only subgroups, significant bone formation could not be detected histologically nor biochemically. These results indicated that a combination of rhBMP and BMSCs, and only with a minimal amount of 1 3g rhBMP, allowed successful generation of human bone. In the human body, rhBMP in the order of milligrams is necessary for bone formation. However, by combining BMSCs, HA and rhBMP, only a small amount of rhBMP was needed to dramatically enhance osteogenic potential. As we reported here, cryopreserved BMSCs also showed high osteoblastic activity. In conclusion, this study provided histological and biochemical evidence that combination of cryopreserved BMSCs, BMP, and porous HA could enhance osteogenic potential.