The Science of Engineering Ceramics III

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Authors: Satoshi Sodeoka, Masato Suzuki, Takahiro Inoue
Abstract: Alumina/zirconia nano-composite coating was fabricated by plasma spraying using agglomerated feedstock from fine powders of about 100 nm. The coating was consisted of fine γ-alumina and zirconia crystals with size of several nano meter and some amorphous boundary layers. The amorphous phase was crystallized and disappeared after heat treatment at 930°C. However, the crystallite size was kept under 50 nm even after 1500°C-100hr heating, so the alumina-zirconia nano-composite showed good thermal stability against the grain growth.
Authors: Masato Shida, Katsunori Akiyama, Ichiro Nagano, Yuichiro Murakami, Satoshi Ohta
Abstract: We have been trying to find new oxide compounds with large thermal expansion coefficients and low thermal conductivities by means of a material calculation technique. Among thousands of compounds in the databases, we found that there were some materials with low thermal conductivities and large thermal expansion coefficients in the group of strontium-niobium oxides. For example, Sr4Nb2O9 has a thermal expansion coefficient of 14.510-6 / and thermal conductivity of 1.0 W/mK, although a slight amount of other phases appear during long-term annealing. These thermal properties are better than those of yttria-stabilized zirconia, which is the standard material for thermal barrier coatings. To prevent the precipitation of other phases, we prepared the solid solutions, Sr4Nb2-xMxO9. In this study, the thermal conductivities and thermal expansion coefficients of these solid solutions were measured, and their thermal stabilities were evaluated by long-term annealing.
Authors: Masato Yoshiya, Mineaki Matsumoto, Akihiko Harada, Munetaka Takeuchi, Hideaki Matsubara
Abstract: Thermal conductivity of pure and Y2O3-doped ZrO2 was calculated using a perturbed molecular dynamics method in order to analyze phonon scattering mechanism which is responsible for the reduction of thermal conductivity. Although absolute values of thermal conductivity were overestimated due to a simple model used in this study, relative values were in good agreement with experiment, which indicates that phonon scattering due to Y2O3 addition is reproduced well. It is found from quantitative analysis of the phonon scattering using the mean field theory that decrease of the thermal conductivity upon Y2O3 addition is attributed not only to the introduction of O2- vacancies but also to substitution of Y3+ ions for Zr4+ ions.
Authors: Hyung Jun Jang, Dong Beak Kim, Yeon Gil Jung, Jung Chel Chang, Sung Churl Choi, Ung Yu Paik
Abstract: The effects of thermal fatigue conditions on the mechanical and contact damage behavior in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are investigated as functions of the bond coat thickness and the preparation method. Three kinds of TBCs with different thickness in the bond coat are prepared by two different methods of APS and HVOF. The static and cyclic thermal fatigues for the TBCs are conducted at temperatures of 950 and 1100 with different dwell times of 10 and 100 hr and 10 cycles at each temperature. Mechanical properties, hardness H and modulus E, in each condition and component are measured by nano-indentation. The contact damage behaviors are investigated by Hertzian indentation, including the cyclic fatigue behavior on the surface of the TBCs. The TGO formation is dependent on both temperature tested and time exposed, showing a similar effect with the cyclic thermal fatigues. The mechanical properties of the TBCs are increased due to the re-sintering of the top coating and the composition change of the bond coat during the thermal fatigues. The contact damage behaviors are affected by the thermal fatigue conditions and the fabrication method, independent of the bond coat thickness.
Authors: Florence Ansart, Jean Pierre Bonino, P. Lenormand, Ch. Robert, Céline Viazzi
Authors: Soo Wohn Lee, Huang Chen, Yi Zeng, Chuan Xian Ding
Abstract: Nanostructured and conventional Al2O3, ZrO2, and TiO2 were deposited using an atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The size of commercial nano-ceramic powders was varied from 5nm up to 150nm. The microstructure and phase composition of the plasma sprayed coatings on metallic substrate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that nano-sized ceramic powders enhanced the deposition efficiency on the metallic substrate rather than the micro-sized conventional commercial powders. Density and mechanical property such as microhardness were better in the case of the nano-sized ceramic powders than that of the conventional micro-sized ceramic powders, which are associated with the fine surface roughness and less size in pores of the coating layers. The wear rate of the nanostructured coating was lower than that of the conventional coating. The results were explained in terms of their microstructure of the coatings layers. Also, photocatalytic characterization of the plasma sprayed coatings, using nanocrystalline size TiO2 as feedstock with various powder sizes and shapes as well as adding with different photocatalytic oxides, was performed. The photocatalytic reactivity using plasma sprayed coating layers can be utilized into various applications.
Authors: Simo Pekka Hannula, Erja Turunen, Jari Keskinen, Tommi Varis, Teppo Fält, Tom E. Gustafsson, Roman Nowak
Abstract: HVOF thermal spraying has been developed to deposit dense Al2O3-coatings for improved protective properties. As compared to generally used plasma sprayed coatings HVOF coatings can be prepared much denser and thus are better suited for applications where protective properties of the coating are needed. In this paper we describe the development of HVOF spraying technologies for nanocrystalline Al2O3- and Al2O3-Ni-coatings. The microstructure and the mechanical properties of these novel coatings are reported and compared to a conventionally processed Al2O3-coating.
Authors: Erja Turunen, Tommi Varis, Tom E. Gustafsson, Jari Keskinen, Pertti Lintunen, Teppo Fält, Roman Nowak, Simo Pekka Hannula
Abstract: Special mechanical properties have widely been demonstrated with bulk nanocrystalline materials. An increasing effort has been made to transfer such improvements also into thermal sprayed ceramic coatings. This paper focuses on such efforts in alumina-based ceramic coatings. The optimization of process conditions and effect of different process parameters on the mechanical performance of high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed ceramic coatings is discussed.
Authors: H. Nakayama, Kohei Morishita, Shojiro Ochiai, Takahiro Sekigawa, K. Aoyama, T. Oi, M. Yamamoto, Kiyohito Okamura, M. Sato
Abstract: SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites are one of the most promising materials for high temperature structural applications such as power generation and propulsion systems. SiC/SiC composites are, however, susceptible to accelerated attacks in water vapor environments through oxidation and volatilization reaction. For protection from such attacks, Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) are indispensable. We have investigated some oxides and rare-earth silicates as topcoat candidate materials for EBCs. Topcoat materials must be stable in the high-water-vapor pressurized environments at high temperatures. Also, it is important that the thermal expansion coefficient of topcoat materials is similar to that of the SiC/SiC composites. In this study, first, zirconium oxides, lutetium silicates and yttrium silicates were selected as topcoat candidate materials. They were exposed in a water-containing atmosphere at a temperature of 1673 K for 100 h under a total pressure 0.96 MPa. Mass changes, structure of crystals and microstructures were investigated after the exposure experiments in order to evaluate the thermal stability of these materials. After their estimation, lutetium silicates were considered to be promising for topcoat materials. Then, lutetium silicates were coated as the topcoat of an EBC system on SiC/SiC composites, and their fracture toughness and microstructures were investigated after exposure to an oxidizing atmosphere. The evaluation results of the topcoat materials are reported in this paper.
Authors: Min Seok Jeon, Jun Kwang Song, Eui Jong Lee, Hee Soo Lee, Tae Hyung No, Duck Hee Kim, In Gil Park
Abstract: There is an increasing reliability concern of thermal stress-induced failures in multilevel coatings in recent years. This work reports investigations of cracking of NiCr coatings due to thermal cycling. The temperature cycling in accelerated testing was performed in three temperature range of 150, 175 and 200°C. The NiCr coatings were considered to have failed when the sheet resistance changed by 30% relative to an initial value. As the cyclic repetition of thermal shock increased, the sheet resistance of NiCr coatings increased. The Coffin-Manson equation was applied to the failure mechanism of cracking of NiCr coatings and the SEM observation of cracks and delamination in NiCr coatings due to thermal cycling agreed well with the failure mechanism.

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