Abstract: The changes in thermographic pattern were studied, in patients with persistent back and leg
pain after surgery, to validate its significance in evaluating the clinical status following percutaneous
radiofrequency (PRF) lesioning on dorsal root ganglion. A total of 90 patients with persistent back
and leg (52 males, 38 females, mean age 46.2 years) with more than 6 months of duration following
lumbar surgeries were enrolled into study. Thermography was performed before and after PRF
procedures. PRF procedures were percutaneously done with C-arm guidance and adjustments from
physiologic monitoring. Assessments included the clinical symptoms, signs and changes of
thermographic pattern before and after PRF procedure. Minimal follow up period was 6 months. All
patients tolerated the RF procedures without complications. Thermographic findings before
procedures were agreeable to clinical and radiographic findings in 81(90%) of patients. PRF
procedure provided substantial improvement of pain (>50% pain reduction) in 69(76.7%) and
63(70%) at 1 and 6 months following procedures. Thermographic findings in 80(88.9%) of these
patients seemed to correlate with clinical improvement. However, 12 patients (13.3%) showed no
significant thermographic changes despite clinical improvement. Clinical factors that were not
statistically significant but were related to better outcome were younger age, unilateral pain, no
significant dysesthesia, less number of operations, no instrumentation. Results of this study indicate
that thermography may have a specific role in evaluating these patients, especially when comparing
with clinical status.
Abstract: Tests for successful surgical results for refractory palmar hyperhidrosis in the past usually
involve starch test, plethysmograpy, and direct measurement of skin temperature. However, these
tests are either inconvenient, inadequate or unable to be used during operation. Authors have used IR
thermography during percutaneous radiofrequency sympathectomy to verify its usefulness as guide
for evaluating the successful results. A total of 14 patients with persistent palmar hyperhidrosis were
included. Average age was 28.2 years (range 21-36 years). Average duration of symptom was 24
months. All procedures were percutaneously performed under local anesthetics. Procedures include
position the patient in prone position and introduction of three 21-guage RF TIC needles with 10 mm
bared tip electrode to T2 and T3 ganglion in each side under C-arm guidance. After obtaining correct
placement of electrode, a series of three lesions at each level with 90 °C for 120s were done.
Successful lesioning was confirmed by from marked widening of pulse amplitude with an increase in
hand skin temperature (>2 °C) by thermographic examination during operation. Average follow up
period was 14.4 months. All patients tolerated the procedure and responded immediately to have
dryness sensation of hands, most of which remained for rest of follow up period. Twelve patients
(85.7%) reported as having about 80% of initial responses and one patient about 60% at 12 months
postoperatively. Another patient who lost about 30-40% of initial response had undergone second
procedure 3 months later with similar success. There were no complications related to the procedures
and there were no rebound phenomenon. With regards to the role of intraoperative thermography in
determining the successful results, it seems to provide clear-cut information whether these patients
received proper treatments for future successful outcome. Thus, authors believe IR thermogrpahic
examination is simple, feasible way of demonstration of completeness of sympathectomy in object
way during surgical procedure that can be used as a guide for successful outcome.
Abstract: Demand of a LCD-TV is remarkably increasing with development of the LCD technology
in these days. However, there are thermal problems to improve efficiency for the LCD-TV. Thus, the
thermal problems such as convection and conduction heat transfer characteristics have been analyzed
for the LCD-TV using an IR (Infrared) camera. Measured temperatures in an outer side of the front
panel have been compared with results of an inner side of the front panel using the IR camera and
T-type thermocouples, respectively. Equations have been derived for the temperature distribution of
the inner side of the LCD panel by developed multiple regression methods including variables for
ambient temperatures and measured outer temperatures of the front panel of the LCD-TV.
Abstract: The corrosion reinforcing steel in concrete structures is detrimental to its service life. In
order to increase lifespan and maintain serviceability, a qualitative measurement technique that can
measure the extent of corrosion of reinforcing steel needs to be developed. While considerable researches
have been carried out focusing only on detecting corrosion and restraining the progress of
corrosion, a qualitative measurement technique that can measure the amount of corrosion in rebar
need to be developed. The purpose of this research is to develop a new technique to measure the
corrosion level of rebar using accumulated thermal data. Accumulated thermal data were gathered
using infrared camera and digitized to distinguish the difference between various corrosion levels of
rebar. The test results showed that the higher level of corrosion displays the higher level of temperature.
Temperature of reinforcing steel is not severely affected by ambient temperature, however,
concrete surface temperature increased as ambient temperature increased.
Abstract: The fracture behavior of Nicalon fiber reinforced calcium aluminosilicate (CAS)
glass-ceramic matrix composites (Nicalon/CAS) was investigated with the aid of a nondestructive
evaluation (NDE) technique. Infrared (IR) thermography was employed for unidirectional
Nicalon/CAS composite specimens. During tensile testing, an IR camera was used for in-situ
monitoring of progressive damages of Nicalon/CAS samples. The IR camera provided the
temperature changes during tensile testing. Microstructural characterization using scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) was performed to investigate the fracture mechanisms of Nicalon/CAS
composites. In this investigation, the thermographic NDE technique was used to facilitate a better
understanding of the fracture mechanisms of the Nicalon/CAS composites during tensile testing.
Abstract: Central poststroke pain can occur as a result of lesion or dysfunction of the brain from
stroke, and may influence the autonomic nervous system to regulate the vasomotor activity which
could result in the lowered skin temperature. In order to assess CPSP objectively, seventy patients
with CPSP were evaluated as their pain with VAS pain score and the skin temperature of pain site by
infrared thermography before and after pain treatment. And evaluated correlation between changes of
temperature and VAS. The skin temperature of pain site was significantly lower than non-pain before
treatment and improved after treatment(p<0.05), in accordance with significant improvement of VAS
pain scores after treatment(p<0.05). And there was highly correlation between the changes of
temperature and VAS(p<0.05). Therefore, it is suggested that the infrared thermography is very useful
device for the evaluation of CPSP and its treatment.
Abstract: This study is aimed to analyze the thermal imaging patterns presented by infrared(IR)
thermography at which the metal with internal defects are thermally heated. Through the knowledge
of non-destructive testing which infrared thermography can be applied to detect the defects inside the
materials, there are two materials experimented; one is stainless steel and the other is cast-iron.
Thermally, each material of specimens is heated at the base of the material and kept with constant
temperature, The artificial defects in the specimen are formulated. Under the shape and location of the
defects, temperature profiles are also measured and validated using the computer simulation. It is
concluded that the characteristics of thermal patterns obtained from IR thermography are consistent
with those of measurement and computations.
Abstract: The thickness dependency of the temperature image obtained by an infrared
thermography was investigated using specimens with three kinds of materials and four kinds of the
thickness of the specimen. Then, the infrared hybrid method was developed to separate individual
stress components. However, it had the influence by heat conduction in the infrared stress
measuring method. Therefore, an error will occur in the infrared hybrid analysis. Then, the system
which corrected the error by the inverse analysis was developed. Thereby, the accuracy of the stress
intensity factor was able to be raised. Furthermore, the accuracy of hybrid method considering to
heat conduction was discussed in comparison with the 3-D finite-element analysis and 2-D hybrid
Abstract: Whiplash injury is produced by the hyperextension of the neck followed by flexion.
These patients have no abnormality in radiologic evaluation.
We collected 39 patients and divided into two groups; Group 1 (neck pain without radiculopathy)
and Group 2 (neck pain with radiculopathy). Thermal differences at neck and arm were checked
with IR thermography. 1 patient was taken the IR thermography periodically until recovery from his
Group 1 showed that subjective painful area on the neck was changed to hyperthermic, but the
arm temperature was normal. Group 2 showed that subjective painful area on the neck was changed
to hyperthermic, and painful arm was changed hyperthermic, which can be differentiated from
hypothermic change in cervical disc herniation patients. Thermal differences were gradually
reduced with the same consequence of the patient’s symptom recovery.
IR thermography can be used to diagnose the whiplash injury and also to determine a symptom
recovery. It is possible to differentiate the whiplash injury with radiculopathy and pre-existing
cervical disc disease.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop the warm-up suit that is comfortable as well as
has good thermal performance. The function of warm-up suit is to keep the body warm and thus to
lose it’s weight by sweating. Ceramic powders, such as zirconium and magnesium oxide have been
incorporated into the textile structures to utilize the far infrared radiation effect of ceramics, which
heat substrates homogeneously by activating molecular motion. Thermal manikin tests were
conducted to determine the clothing insulation and evaporative resistance of the selected warm-up
suits. Also, the far IR emission effects of ceramics containing laminate on the body heat transfer
were evaluated with the thermogram data using IR camera. The results showed that the ceramics
inside laminate slightly increased the thermal insulation and the evaporative resistance.
Thermogram showed that when the fabric was heated with the thermal manikin, surface mean
temperatures of fabrics were increased as the ceramic incorporated, and the heat storage
performance was confirmed.