The Mechanical Behavior of Materials X

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Authors: Dong Geun Lee, Yang Gon Kim, Byoung Chul Hwang, Sung Hak Lee, Nack J. Kim
Abstract: Dynamic deformation and fracture behavior of Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) and BMG composite containing dendritic β phases was investigated in this study. Dynamic compressive test results indicated that both maximum compressive stress and total strain of the BMG and BMG composite decreased with increasing test temperature because shear bands could propagate rapidly as the adiabatic heating effect was added at high temperatures. Above the glass transition temperature, total strain decreased more abruptly due to crystallization of amorphous phases. Maximum compressive stress and total strain of the BMG composite were higher than those of the BMG because β phases played a role in forming multiple shear bands. The BMG composite having more excellent dynamic properties than the BMG can be more reliably applied to the structures or parts requiring dynamic properties.
Authors: Yong Nam Kwon, Kyu Hong Lee, Sung Hak Lee
Abstract: The present study aims at investigating the effects of microstructure on fracture toughness of two A356 Al alloys. These A356 alloys were fabricated by casting processes such as rheo-casting and casting-forging, and their mechanical properties and fracture toughness were analyzed in relation with microfracture mechanisms. All the cast A356 alloys contained eutectic Si particles mainly segregated along solidification cells, and the distribution of Si particles was modified by the casting-forging process. Microfracture observation results revealed that eutectic Si particles segregated along cells were cracked first, but that Al matrix played a role in blocking crack propagation. Tensile properties and fracture toughness of the cast-forged alloys having homogeneous distribution of eutectic Si particles were superior to those of the rheo-cast alloy.
Authors: Duk Hyun Nam, Kyu Hong Lee, Sung Hak Lee
Abstract: The present study is concerned with the improvement of hardness and wear resistance in (Cr3C2,CrB)/carbon steel surface composites fabricated by high-energy electron beam irradiation. Two kinds of powder mixtures, 50Cr3C2-50STS304 and 50CrB-50STS304 (wt.%), were placed on a plain carbon steel substrate, which was then irradiated with electron beam. The surface composite layer of 1.0~1.3 mm in thickness was successfully formed without defects, and contained a large amount (up to 58 vol.%) of Cr7C3 or Cr1.65Fe0.35B0.9 particles in the austenite or martensite matrix. The hardness and wear resistance of the surface composites were 2~3 times higher than those of the steel substrate according to hard particles. Particularly, the surface composite fabricated with CrB powders showed excellent wear resistance because selective wear of the matrix was considerably reduced.
Authors: Jee Hoon Ahn, Eun Pil Song, Sung Hak Lee, Nack J. Kim
Abstract: Wear resistance of Al2O3-8wt.%TiO2 coatings plasma-sprayed using nanopowders was investigated. Four types of nanostructured Al2O3-8wt.%TiO2 powders were plasma-sprayed on a low-carbon steel substrate by using different critical plasma spray parameters (CPSP). The coatings consisted of completely melted and partially melted regions. The hardness of the coatings increased with increasing CPSP, while the wear resistance was the highest for the coating sprayed with the lowest CPSP. The main wear mechanism was a delamination mode in the coating sprayed with the high CPSP, but was changed to an abrasive mode in the coating sprayed with the low CPSP. According to this change in the wear mechanism, the wear resistance was the best in the coating sprayed with lowest CPSP, while its hardness was lowest.
Authors: Jung G. Lee, Kee Sun Sohn, Sung Hak Lee, Nack J. Kim, Choong Nyun Paul Kim
Abstract: Microfracture mechanisms of Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloy containing ductile crystalline particles were investigated by directly observing microfracture processes using an in situ loading stage. Strength of the BMG alloy containing crystalline particles was lower than that of the monolithic BMG alloy, while ductility was higher. According to the direct microfracture observation, crystalline particles initiated shear bands, acted as blocking sites of shear band or crack propagation, and provided the stable crack growth which could be confirmed by the R-curve analysis, although they negatively affected apparent fracture toughness. This increase in fracture resistance with increasing crack length improved overall fracture properties of the alloy containing crystalline particles, and could be explained by mechanisms of blocking of crack or shear band propagation, formation of multiple shear bands, crack blunting, and shear band branching.
Authors: Jeong Guk Kim, Peter K. Liaw
Abstract: The fracture behavior of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) was investigated using the infrared (IR) thermography nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique during monotonic and cyclic loadings. The CMCs used for this investigation are continuous Nicalon (silicon carbide fiber) fiber reinforced calsium aluminosilicate (CAS) glass-ceramics matrix composites. During monotonic tension and cyclic fatigue loadings, IR camera was used for in-situ monitoring of temperature evolution, and the temperature changes during testing were measured. Microstructural characterizations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to investigate fracture modes and failure mechanisms of Nicalon/CAS samples. In this investigation, the NDE technique and SEM characterization were employed to facilitate a better understanding of damage evolution and progress of Nicalon/CAS composites during monotonic and cyclic loadings.
Authors: Hyeon Taek Son, Jae Seol Lee, Ji Min Hong, Ik Hyun Oh, Kyosuke Yoshimi, Kouichi Maruyama
Abstract: The aims of this research are to investigate the effect of Sm addition in Mg-Al-Ca alloys on microstructure and mechanical properties. Sm addition to Mg-5Al-3Ca based alloys results in the change from dendritic to equiaxed grain morphorlogy and formation of Al-Sm rich itermetallic compounds at grain boundary and α-Mg matrix. And these Al-Sm rich intermetallic compounds were dispersed homogeously and stabilized at high temperature. And maximum yield and ultimate strength value was obtained at Mg-5Al-3Ca-2Sm alloys at elevated temperature because of homogeneous dispersion of stable Al-Sm rich intermetallic compound at high temperature.
Authors: Un Bong Baek, Jong Seo Park, In Hyun Chung, Tae Won Park, Seung Hoon Nahm
Abstract: Al alloy is used extensively in several fields because specific strength is good and workability is superior. It is known that If Sc is added to Al alloy, strength is increased and re-crystallization temperature rises because microstructure becomes fine. The high cycle fatigue properties of four kinds of Al-Mg-Si alloys without and with only scandium of 0.20 % or with both scandium(Sc) of 0.20 % and zirconium(Zr) of 0.12% were investigated. The fatigue strength was determined at R = -1.0 under constant amplitude loading conditions in air. The alloy with scandium of 0.20 % showed a little higher fatigue strength values. The alloy with 0.20 % Sc and 0.12 % Zr showed highest tensile yield strength and highest fatigue strength. The fine grained Al 6061+0.20Sc+0.12Zr alloy exhibited a higher resistance against fatigue crack nucleation in comparison to the coarse grained Al 6061 alloy. The results can be explained mainly with the micro-structural differences among four alloys. This results are due to the presence of coherent Al3 (Sc, Zr) precipitates and a very fine sub-grain structure.
Authors: Hoy Yul Park, Moon Kyong Na, Myeong Sang Ahn, Seog Young Yoon, Seong Soo Park
Abstract: Fiber-reinforced plastics consist of fibers of high strength and modulus embedded in, or bonded to a matrix with distinct interfaces between them. Because fiber configuration plays a key role in determining mechanical strength of fiber-reinforced plastic rods, especially bending strength of fiber-reinforced plastic rods was measured and simulated numerically in variation with winding angles. Also, stress distribution in fiber-reinforced plastic rods was simulated numerically under the condition of constant bending load to fiber-reinforced plastic rods. The measured bending strength of fiber-reinforced plastic rods in variation with winding angles was different from that of simulated. The difference between measured and simulated results was due to the effect of shear stresses on the strength of fiber-reinforced plastic rods.
Authors: Ji Won Son, Nam Ho Song, Sung Han Rhim, Soo Ik Oh
Abstract: In nano-imprint lithography (NIL) process, which has shown to be a good method to fabricate polymeric patterns, several kinds of pattern defects due to thermal effects during polymer flow and mold release operation have been reported. A typical defect in NIL process with high aspect ratio and low resist thickness pattern is a resist fracture during the mold release operation. It seems due to interfacial adhesion between polymer and mold. In the present investigation, FEM simulation of NIL process was carried out to predict the defects of the polymer pattern and to optimize the process by FEA. To achieve the above mentioned purpose, FEM simulation technique based on constitutive modeling of polymer with experiments was firstly investigated [1]. Secondly, the embossing operation in NIL process was investigated in detail by FEM. From the analytical results, it was found that the non-uniform flow-pattern of polymer and the applied pressure in the embossing operation induce the cavity and the drastic lateral-strain at the edge of pattern. It was also shown that the low polymer-thickness result in the delamination of polymer from the substrate. It seems that the above phenomena cause the defects of the final polymer pattern.

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