The Mechanical Behavior of Materials X

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Authors: Yong Nam Kwon, Young Seon Lee, S.W. Kim, Jung Hwan Lee
Abstract: Mg alloys could be the lightest alloys among the industrially applicable engineering alloys. Since wrought Mg alloy has limited applications due to the poor formability, casting is currently the main processing technique to fabricate Mg components even though wrought alloys are superior in terms of mechanical properties and reliability. While a lot of research and development has been focused on warm forming under the temperature condition of around 250°C where more formability could be expected, superplastic forming could be another way to get over the low formability of Mg alloys. Like other superplastic materials grain boundary sliding is the main deformation mechanism of Mg superplasticity. Accommodation of stress concentration around triple point of grain boundary should be done favorably if grain boundary sliding continues without any fracture. In the present study, superplastic behavior of AZ31 alloys with several grain sizes was examined firstly. Accommodation of grain boundary sliding of AZ31 alloy would be discussed on the basis of grain morphology and texture evolution after tensile deformation.
Authors: L. Zhang, Zhong Guang Wang, J.K. Shang
Abstract: The eutectic Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu alloy is widely considered a leading Pb-free replacement for the eutectic Pb-Sn solder alloy in electronic packaging where creep deformation and rupture is a major concern. In this study, creep rupture behavior of Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloy was investigated under the isothermal condition. Creep tests were conducted under a range of stresses and temperatures. Creep lifetime data were analyzed by the combined time-temperature equations following the Sherby, Larsen-Miller, and Manson-Haferd approaches. From these analyses, a series of material parameters were obtained from the experimental data. The results showed that the Manson-Hanferd method provided a better correlation with the creep rupture data. The mechanisms of creep deformation and rupture at different time-temperature combinations are discussed.
Authors: Woo Gon Kim, Song Nan Yin, Woo Seog Ryu, Yong Wan Kim, Won Yi
Abstract: To design HTGR components for up to 1000oC, their creep curves are necessary during a design process. In this study, the full creep curves were modeled by the nonlinear least square fitting method using the Kachanov-Rabotnov (K-R) creep model. A series of creep data was obtained experimentally under various stress levels for Hastelloy-X at 950oC, and the data was used to model the creep curves. The K-R model gave a poor description of modeling creep curves, but the modified K-R one, which has another variable, K in the K-R model, was in better agreement than the K-R one. It was found that the λ parameter in the K-R model was constant regardless of the stress variations. The λ value was about 3.9 for the K-R model and about 5.8 for the modified one.
Authors: Seiichi Muneki, Hiroshi Okubo, Fujio Abe
Abstract: In order to improve the creep strength of the heat resistant steels at elevated temperatures over 700°C, a new attempt has been demonstrated using carbon and nitrogen free Fe-Ni martensitic and austenitic alloys strengthened by Laves phase such as Fe2W and Fe2Mo. It is important that these alloys are independent of any carbides and any carbo-nitrides as strengthening factors. The high temperature creep tests over 700°C exceed 36,000 hours and the test is continued. Creep behavior of alloys is found to be completely different from that of the conventional high-Cr ferritic steels. The alloys exhibit gradual change in the creep rate with strain both in the transient and acceleration creep regions, and give a larger strain for the minimum creep rate. Effect of Cr on the Fe-12Ni-9Co-10W alloys on the creep properties more over 700°C was investigated. It became clear that the value for 100,000 hours was exceeded at 700°C and 100MPa calculated from the Larson-Miller parameter at C=20. And surface appearance of crept specimen was investigated in detail.
Authors: Duck Young Hwang, Kion Kwon, Dong Hyuk Shin, Kyung Tae Park, Young Gun Ko, Chong Soo Lee
Abstract: Ultrafine grained (UFG) 5083 Al and 5154 Al alloys were prepared by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) with an effective strain of ~ 4 or ~ 8. This investigation was aimed at examining the effect of the ECAP strain and post-rolling inducing different microstructure in these alloys on the deformation mechanisms at low temperature superplastic (LTS) and high strain superplastic (HSRS) regimes. The sample after 4 passes (a strain of ∼ 4) did not exhibit LTS, but superplastic elongations were obtained in the sample after 8 passes (a strain of ∼ 8). An analysis of the mechanical data in light of the standard deformation mechanisms revealed that deformation of the sample after 4 passes was governed by dislocation climb while grain boundary sliding attributed to LTS of the sample after 8 passes. In addition, the 5154 Al alloy processed by ECAP and postrolling was capable of enhancing HSRS elongation significantly. An analysis revealed that the deformation mode was changed from dislocation viscous glide to grain boundary sliding by additional ECAP strain and post-rolling.
Authors: H.A. Mohd Yusof, Iswadi Jauhari, S. Rozali, O. Hiroyuki
Abstract: In this work, a further study on boronizing using compression method called superplastic boronizing (SPB) was conducted. This process was conducted on duplex stainless steel (DSS) that exhibited superplasticity. Efforts were being put in obtaining ultra hard surface through SPB by focusing on the boron powder particle size. The microstructure, hardness, and layer thickness of the boronized materials were investigated. Comparison using as-received DSS with coarse microstructure also was performed. The overall results from the study showed that the SPB process can produced a very hard surface of close to 4000 HV and significantly improved the surface properties of the DSS.
Authors: Li Hong Han, Derek O. Northwood, Henry Hu
Abstract: Mg-Al-Ca alloys with 1wt.% and 2 wt.% Ca additions (AC51 and AC52) were cast by the Permanent Mold technique. The microstructures of the as-cast Mg-Al-Ca alloys were observed by SEM with EDS analysis. The secondary phases were mainly precipitated along the grain boundaries and exhibited a continuous network microstructure for the AC52 alloy and a divorced microstructure for the AC51 alloy. EDS microanalysis showed that the solute (Ca) content in the grains of the AC52 alloy is higher than that in the AC51. A three-sided pyramidal (Berkovich) diamond indenter was used to characterize the local nano-creep behavior at room temperature within the α-Mg in grains. The nano-creep results showed that the AC52 alloy has better creep resistance than the AC51 alloy at all loads at room temperature. The creep exponent n, obtained from the indentation creep data, changes from 6.3 to 3.0 for AC51 alloy and from 6.6 to 3.2 for AC52 alloy at a critical stress (132 MPa for the AC51 and 145 MPa for the AC52). The transition in creep behavior at higher stresses is associated with a change in the deformation mechanisms.
Authors: Kwai S. Chan
Abstract: The fracture behavior of Nb-based in-situ composites is reviewed to elucidate the effects of alloy additions on the fracture process in multiphase alloys. The overview paper summarizes the current understanding of the processes by which alloying addition and microstructure alter the near-tip deformation and fracture mechanism, and presents a methodology for predicting the fracture toughness of the constituent phases and the composite. The alloying effects observed in Nb-based in-situ composites can be attributed to changes in dislocation mobility in the metallic solid solution matrix that provides ductile phase toughening in the composites. The size, volume fraction, and the continuity of the intermetallic phases dictate the fracture path and impact significantly the facture toughness of the in-situ composites.
Authors: T. Watanabe, Sadahiro Tsurekawa, S. Kobayashi, X. Zhao, L. Zuo
Abstract: In last two decades it has been extensively studied whether the grain boundary engineering can be effectively applied to controlling intergranular fracture and brittleness of different kinds of brittle materials. Grain boundary engineering has been well established. A new processing method based on magnetic field application has reached a new stage of grain boundary engineering.
Authors: Jing Xi Chen, Peng Zhen Ke, Guang Zhang
Abstract: An strength reduction technique combined with elasto-plastic Finite Element Method (FEM)is applied in the analysis of slope stability in this paper .The authors present a well-defined total equivalent plastic strain (TEPS) zone as the failure criterion when it running through the bottom to the top of a slope. Based on non-linear FEM and computed displacement technique, the result of elasto-plastic FEM analysis could be displayed, which makes the conception of slope failure more clear. Moreover, according to TEPS zone , the position of sliding face and the safety coefficient also can be obtained . The calculated result of the example proves the presented method is more effective in analyzing the stability of slope, which offers a new thinking for the analysis of slope stability, and can be wildly applied to slope engineering practices.

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