Fluctuation Mechanism of Mechanical Properties of Electroplated-Copper Thin Films Used for Three Dimensional Electronic Modules
The mechanical properties of copper thin films deposited by sputtering and electroplating were compared using tensile test and nano-indentation. Both the Young’s modulus and tensile strength of the films were found to vary drastically depending on the microstructure of the deposited films. The Young’s modulus of the sputtered film was almost same as that of bulk material. However, the Young’s modulus of the electroplated thin film was about a fourth of that of bulk material. The micro structure of the electroplated film was polycrystalline and a columnar structure with a diameter of a few hundred-micron. The strength of the grain boundaries of the columnar grains seemed to be rather week. In addition, there was a sharp distribution of Young’s modulus along the thickness direction of the film. Though the modulus near the surface of the film was close to that of bulk material, it decreased drastically to about a fourth within the depth of about 1 micron. There was also a plane distribution of Young’s modulus near the surface of the film.
Yu Zhou, Shan-Tung Tu and Xishan Xie
H. Miura et al., "Fluctuation Mechanism of Mechanical Properties of Electroplated-Copper Thin Films Used for Three Dimensional Electronic Modules", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 353-358, pp. 2954-2957, 2007