Bioceramics 24

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Authors: S.B. Cho, E.M. An, Sujeong Lee, H.D. Jang, Ill Yong Kim, Chikara Ohtsuki, Y.J. Kim
Abstract: Osteoconductive bone-repairing materials with mechanical properties analogous to those of human bone can be prepared through the combination of an osteoconductive ceramic filler with an organic polymer. Osteoconduction is archived from apatite formation on substrates. Previously, we reported that novel osteoconductive spherical particles in a binary CaO-SiO2 system were produced through a sol-gel process as ceramic filler for the fabrication of composites. In this study, we fabricated the composites consisting of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and 30CaO·70SiO2 (CS) spherical particles and evaluated the effects of heat treatment in the range of 320-360 °C on apatite formation of the composites in a simulated body fluid. The prepared composites of PEEK and CS particles form hydroxyapatite on their surfaces in the simulated body fluid. The induction periods of hydroxyapatite on the composites decreased with increasing the amount of CS particles and decreasing the temperature for heat treatment. The apatite formation was affected by exposure of ceramic filler on the polymer matrix.
Authors: Thomas Miramond, Pascal Borget, Caroline Colombeix, Serge Baroth, G. Daculsi
Abstract: The main goal of this study was to succeed in the relevant association of well-known osteoconductive biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) made of Hydroxyapatite (20% HA) and β-Tricalcium Phosphate (80% β-TCP) crystallographic phases and resorbable poly (L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide)(PLDLLA) 3D matrices synthesized by electrospinning. Two types of mineral particles were obtained, BCP new hollow granules, and classical BCP particles. It appeared that hollow shells/PLDLLA composite 3D matrices allowed higher cell adhesion in vitro, thanks to internal concavities and are promising scaffolds in terms of cell carrying.
Authors: Yos Phanny, Mitsugu Todo
Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold was fabricated using template method. Secondary phase of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) was then introduced into the porous structure of the HA scaffold by the freeze drying method or the room drying process. Compression test and SEM were done to examine the mechanical properties and the microstructural morphology of the composite scaffolds. It was found that the compressive strength and modulus tend to increase with increasing PCL concentration. HA/PCL scaffolds fabricated under the room drying process exhibited higher compression strength and modulus than HA/PCL scaffolds prepared by the freeze drying method because the porous HA surfaces were completely covered by PCL in the room drying scaffolds. XRD test was also used to study the phase stability of the scaffolds. It was confirmed that there was no chemical reaction between PCL and HA. On overall, the results indicated that the introduction of secondary PCL phases into the porous HA scaffold can improve the low strength and toughness of the pure HA scaffold and the HA/PCL composite scaffolds might be a potential candidate in bone tissue engineering.
Authors: Y. Kuwahara, Toshiki Miyazaki, Kawashita Masakazu
Abstract: This study is concerning hybrid materials composed of the magnetite and the organic polymer such as dextran. They are useful for hyperthermia of cancer. In the preparation of this material, chemical structure or molecular weight of the added polymer is expected to affect ionic interaction between polymer and iron salts, and consequently the grain size and morphology of the prepared magnetite core. Therefore, we have synthesized magnetite-polymer hybrids using various polymers. Various polymers were dissolved in iron (II) chloride aqueous solution, and then NaOH aqueous solution was added to this mixed solution. As a result, in the case of neutral and cationic polymer crystalline magnetite was precipitated in the hybrid. On the other hand, in the case of anionic polyacrylic acid, lepidocrocite was precipitated rather than magnetite. It is known that the magnetite formation progresses through intermediate Fe (OH)2 formation and oxidation of the Fe (OH)2 by dissolved O2. Therefore it is considered that tight ionic interaction is constructed between the iron ions and the carboxyl group in the polyacrylic acid to form a complex, and the Fe (OH)2 formation is inhibited. When the hybrid was prepared by addition of NaOH aqueous solution to iron (II) chloride solution, and subsequent addition of the different polymers, magnetite formation was not inhibited irrespective of kind of polymer. The present results indicate that crystalline structure of the magnetite phase in magnetite-polymer hybrid is strongly affected by the chemical structure of polymer additives or the order of addition.
Authors: Makoto Otsuka, Yoshihiro Tokudome, Kuniko Otsuka, Atsuo Ito
Abstract: The purpose of this research is improvement of therapeutic treatment for periodontitis by using lipophilic and/or hydrophilic zinc materials. The sample suspension injections were prepared from zinc octanate, zinc stearate, zinc sulfate hepta-hydrate and tricalcium phosphate containing 6.17w/w% zinc. After administrating of all injections to around alveolar bone of zinc-deficient osteoporosis rats, plasma Zn concentration, bone mineral content and bone mechanical strength of jawbone and femur of Zn deficient rats were measured as therapeutic scores.
Authors: Joshua Chou, Tomoko Ito, Makoto Otsuka, Besim Ben-Nissan, Bruce Milthorpe
Abstract: Simvastatin has been shown to succesfully stimulate bone regeneration and attention has being focussed on developing appropriate delivery carriers for its release. The challenge of deliverying therapeutic concentration of pharmaceutical compunds has being the centre of focus in drug delivery developments. This study examines the in-vivo effects of simvastatin released from β-TCP macrospheres derived from coral exoxskeletons. The results indicates that the controlled release of simvastatin can promote bone formation comparable with direct injection. Furthermore the results showed that the release of simvastatin delivery rates can be controlled by additional coating of an apatite coating. Analysis by CT scans, SEM, amount of new bone formed and mechanical strength tests, showed that by controlling the release of simvastatin bone formation can be stimulated to a therapeutic level.
Authors: Ayako Oyane, Hiroko Araki, Yu Sogo, Atsuo Ito, Hideo Tsurushima
Abstract: A surface-mediated gene transfer system using DNA-calcium phosphate (CaP) composite layers (D-CaP layers) would be useful in tissue engineeing. In previous studies, D-CaP layers were fabricated in supersaturated CaP solutions prepared using chemical reagents. In this study, a so-called RKM solution prepared using clinically approved infusion fluids was employed as a supersaturated CaP solution. A D-CaP layer consisting of submicron spherical particles was successfully fabricated on a polystyrene substrate by immersing the substrate in the RKM solution for 24 h. When the immersion period was prolonged from 24 to 72 h, amount of CaP and DNA on the substrate increased. However, the gene transfer capability of the D-CaP layer for the CHO-K1 cells was kept unchanged irrespective of the immersion period. In the RKM solution process, immersion period of 24 h was found to be long enough for gene transfer application of the D-CaP layer. More importantly, the D-CaP layer fabricated by the RKM solution process exhibited a significantly higher gene transfer capability than our previous D-CaP layer fabricated in the conventional CaP solution with the same DNA concentration. The RKM solution process for the fabrication of D-CaP layers was found to be advantageous to the previous process in terms of not only safety but the layers gene transfer capability.
Authors: Xiu Peng Wang, Xia Li, Atsuo Ito, Yu Sogo
Abstract: An apatite-pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) adjuvant was prepared by coprecipitation of apatite and PAMPs using a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution supplemented with PAMPs. In this study, we used a hydrothermal extract of human tubercle bacillus (HTB) as PAMPs. The effects of coprecipitation conditions on immunogenic activity were studied. The adjuvants prepared using extract of at 10 and 20 μg/mL showed higher in vitro immunogenic activity than that at 2 μg/mL. The adjuvants prepared under stir at speed of 300 rpm showed better in vitro immunogenic activity than those under still. The adjuvants prepared using 10 μg/mL of extract of HTB under stir at speed of 300 rpm may be promising for cancer immune therapy.
Authors: Ruggero Bosco, Michele Iafisco, Jeroen van den Beucken, Sander C.G. Leeuwenburgh, John A. Jansen
Abstract: The possibility to develop a bone implant with bioactive aspects and in situ drug-delivery properties, in order to provide local treatment in vivo, is a big challenge. Where conventional surface modifications for bone implants focused on the deposition of ceramic (mostly calcium phosphate, CaP) coatings, current surface engineering approaches attempt to incorporate active features to render bone implant surfaces capable to direct biological performance. Biomimetic apatite nanocrystals (nAp) represent, among the CaPs, an elective material for bone applications and their surface functionalization with drugs allows them to act as a drug-delivery vehicle. Since load-bearing bone implants are increasingly used in patients with compromised health conditions, surface engineering is important to warrant the performance of these implants under such conditions. In view of this, bisphosphonates (BPs) represent a treatment modality for a variety of disorders of bone metabolism associated to bone loss, including Paget's bone disease, osteoporosis, fibrous dysplasia and bone metastases. In this work, we have synthesized and characterized bioinspired nAp and evaluated their functionalization with alendronate. In vitro tests will be used to evaluate the efficacy of the functionalized compound to impede the formation of osteoclasts and to show that alendronate-functionalized nAp can significantly reduce osteoclasteogenesis. Finally, alendronate-functionalized nAp (FnAp) has been deposited on titanium implants via the electrospray deposition technique in order to develop inorganic-organic coatings for bone implants with improved functionality.
Authors: Xiu Peng Wang, Atsuo Ito, Xia Li, Yu Sogo, Ayako Oyane
Abstract: FGF-2-apatite and FGF-2-zinc-apatite composite layers were formed on commercially available anodically oxidized Ti external fixation rods using FGF-2-and ZnCl2-containing supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions. The FGF-2-zinc-apatite composite layers precipitated on the Ti external fixation rods significantly enhanced proliferation of fibroblastic NIH3T3 and osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro.

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