Bioceramics 24

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Authors: Klaus G. Nickel, Melanie Keuper, Christoph Berthold
Abstract: This work follows a study on hydrothermal aged 3Y-TZP bioceramics, which showed that the surface X-ray diffraction data from moisture exposed samples give distorted results, reflecting a simple linear growth of a partially transformed layer from the surface into the interior. There is no indication for a leveling off or retardation of this growth at elevated temperatures (134°C) and here we present evidence that this is probably true at body temperatures as well. However, the rate constants at body temperature for the studied material are low and indicate a long lifetime. It should be noted that this statement is specific and other materials with minor changes to chemistry or microstructure may behave much better or much worse under those conditions. Furthermore slow crack growth and crack interactions are not yet investigated and may necessitate a minimum of low-temperature degradation susceptibility to ensure reliable long-time use.
Authors: Simona Cavalu, Viorica Simon, Cristian Ratiu, Vasile Rus, Ipek Akin, Gultekin Goller
Abstract: The aim of our study is to compare the structural and biological tolerance of novel Al2O3/3Y-TZP composites with ceria respectively titania addition (5 wt%). Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and XPS results are reported for structural characteristics and surface modifications upon different fluoride treatments. The biocompatibility of the samples was evaluated using an animal model (rabbit). The explants were analyzed at a specific period (6 weeks).The sections of implanted bone area were subjected to histological evaluation. Upon correlating the structural properties and in vivo evaluation, we concluded that the addition of both TiO2 and CeO2 to Al2O3/3Y-TZP implies similar properties and satisfactory biological tolerance. With respect to the surface treatment, qualitative and quantitative results show that the alumina/zirconia with titania addition are more sensitive to fluoride treatment.
Authors: Yu Tsuchiya, Naohiro Horiuchi, Miho Nakamura, Kosuke Nozaki, Akiko Nagai, Kazuaki Hashimoto, Kimihiro Yamashita
Abstract: Effect of surface charges induced by polarization treatment on Low Temperature Degradation (LTD) in 3mol%Y-doped ZrO2 was studied. Samples were polarized by applying voltage (7kV/cm) at 200°C for various time (1~30min). LTD acceleration test was conducted using polarized samples. LTD was inhibited on negatively charged surface in all the polarized samples, which is independent on polarization time. We carried out thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) analysis for investigate polarization mechanism. Two polarization elements were confirmed: orientation polarization and space charge polarization. A comparison of the result of LTD acceleration test and TSDC analysis indicates that orientation polarization is considered superior element in inhibition of LTD.
Authors: Christian Stötzel, Heinz Dieter Kurland, Janet Grabow, Frank A. Müller
Abstract: Magnetic iron oxide (FexOy) and iron oxide/silica (FexOy/SiO2) composite nanoparticles were synthesized by CO2 laser vaporization (LAVA) of an α-Fe2O3 raw powder and α-Fe2O3/quartz sand mixtures, respectively. Particle morphology, composition and iron oxide phase formation were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The resulting nanopowders mainly consisted of magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3). Increasing the oxygen partial pressure in the LAVA process gas an additional iron oxide phase, ε-Fe2O3, occurred. The saturation magnetization of the iron oxide nanoparticles was determined with vibrating sample magnetometry and was found to decrease with increasing oxygen partial pressure in the process gas. FexOy/SiO2 composite nanoparticles are of particular interest for biomedical applications because their silica surface can be functionalized very easily.
Authors: Faik Nüzhet Oktar, Simeon Agathopoulos, Lutfiye Sevgi Ozyegin, I.G. Turner, O. Gunduz, N. Demirkol, S. Brück, Besim Ben-Nissan, R. Samur, E.S. Kayali, Cenk Aktas
Abstract: The production of nano-calcium phosphate powders, such as HA (hydroxyapatite), from synthetic chemicals can be expensive and time consuming. The skeleton or shells of sea creatures (e.g. sea urchins, shells, corals) could be an alternative source of materials to produce very fine and even nano-structured calcium phosphate biomaterial powders. Ηydrothermal conversion under very high pressures or methods such as hot-plating (chemical) or ultrasonication (mechano-chemical), have been proposed to transform naturally derived CaCO3, e.g. aragonite, into apatite based materials. The aim of the present work was to prepare inexpensive nano-sized HA and TCP bioceramics powders from a local sea snail shells as a possible raw material for HA/TCP bioceramics. Empty shells of a local sea snail (Nassarius hinia reticulatus) from Marmara Sea, Turkey were collected from a beach near Istanbul. The collected shells were ground to a particle size <75µm. Thermal analyses (DTA/TGA) were performed to determine the exact CaCO3 content and thermal behavior. The raw powder was suspended in an aqueous media which was placed in an ultrasonic bath. The temperature was set at 80°C for 15min. Then, an equivalent (to CaO content) amount of H3PO4 was added drop by drop very gently into the solution. The reaction continued for 8h, following which the liquid component was evaporated off in an incubator at 100°C for 24h. The dried sediment was collected and heat treated at two different temperatures, 400 and 800°C. The morphology of the powders produced was examined using SEM. The crystalline phases were indentified using X-ray analysis. X-ray diffractograms indicated the presence of two calcium phosphate phases, namely HA and whitlockite. SEM observations showed that the powder produced comprised nano-sized particles. FTIR results also indicated the presence of HA and whitlockite structures. The experimental results suggest that Nassarius hinia reticulatus shells could be an alternative source for the production of various mono or biphasic calcium phosphates. In this study, local sea snail shells were successfully converted to HA and whitlockite with a simple mechano-chemical (ultrasonic) conversion method without the use of complex hydrothermal methods.
Authors: M. Morikawa, Y. Kuboki, Tsukasa Akasaka, Shigeaki Abe, H. Takita, Fumio Watari
Abstract: For application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as biomaterials, it is important to clarify the interaction between CNTs and proteins, which may affect on cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, the adsorption behavior was investigated for representative proteins, bovine serum albumin, lysozyme and fetal bovine serum by using chromatography system. It was also aimed whether the different treatment conditions of CNTs affected the adsorption of proteins. CNTs used for this study had a straight shape and about 70nm in a diameter from SEM observation. There was not much difference between untreated and treated CNTs from SEM images. In chromatography experiments, all the proteins of albumin, lysozyme and serum were eluted immediately after injected to the column of untreated CNTs. Second elution appeared after buffer was changed from phosphate saline buffer to 25mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The same tendency was confirmed for CNTs with only acid treatment. However the eluted peaks became remarkably smaller after the column was changed to CNTs with thermal and twice acid treatments. These results indicated that treatment conditions for CNTs affected the adsorption behavior of proteins.
Authors: Saori Inoue, Motohiro Uo, Masatoshi Sakairi, Eri Hirata, Min Ho Lee, Tae Sung Bae, Tsukasa Akasaka, Fumio Watari, Atsuro Yokoyama
Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have excellent chemical, physical, and biological properties such as strong cell adhesion, protein adsorption and cell proliferation in vitro. Excellent osteocompatibility for the CNT monolith was also reported in vivo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of anodized titanium coated with multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) on human osteosarcoma Saos2 cells and bone tissue. Saos2 cells on CNT-Ti showed excellent proliferation with extension of cell morphology in all directions. CNT-Ti wire was implanted in the bone marrow of femurs of rats. At 2 weeks after surgery, histological investigations revealed that bone tissue attached to the surface of the CNT-Ti directly. Thus the surface modification of anodized Ti by MWCNTs can be effective for bone formation.
Authors: Shigeaki Abe, Yusaku Hamba, Nobuki Iwadera, Tsukasa Akasaka, Shuichi Yamagata, Yasutaka Yawaka, Junichiro Iida, Motohiro Uo, Tetsu Yonezawa, Fumio Watari
Abstract: We succeeded in determination the biodistribution of several nano-sized particles administered to mice through the tail vein. After administration, these particles were observed in the lung, liver and spleen. The distribution behaviors depend upon not only chemical species but also the particles size. To estimate their cytocompatibility, these particles were exposed to osteoblastic cell at several concentrations. When the concentration reached at 10 ppm, their viability remained at 80% or more even nano-sized particle contained rare earth element. Only CuO particles indicated the viability decrease. The effect depended on the particle size. These results suggested that the chemical species played a dominant key in the biodistribution and biocompatibility of nanoparticles compared with the size-effect.
Authors: Motohiro Tagaya, Nobutaka Hanagata, Toshiyuki Ikoma, Takaomi Kobayashi, Kota Shiba, Tomohiko Yoshioka, Junzo Tnaka
Abstract: Luminescent europium(III)-doped nanoporous silica spheres (Eu:NPS) were synthesized, and folic acid derivative (FA: folate N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester) as targeting ligand for cancer cells was immobilized on the sphere through a mediation of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The ordered nanopores were preserved with the immobilization. The surface area decreased only with the APTES immobilization, suggesting that the FA was immobilized only on the outer surface of the nanopores. The photoluminescence of the spheres showed the characteristic peak due to interactions between the FA and Eu3+, and further the luminescence can be clearly detected by a fluorescent microscopy. The spheres were highly dispersed stability in cell culture medium to exhibit the nontoxic in the proliferation stage of Hela cancer cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts, and specifically bindto the Hela cells. The binding and uptake spheres showed the intense luminescence. Thus, the luminescent FA-immobilized Eu:NPS spheres will exhibit the targeting and imaging abilities for cancer cells.
Authors: Jie Li, Yuki Shirosaki, Satoshi Hayakawa, Artemis Stamboulis, Akiyoshi Osaka
Abstract: Silica gel macrospheres of 2~4 mm in size, and wrapped with Ca-alginate chelate film were prepared as the substrate for hydroxyapatite coating layer, using water glass as the silica source. Those Ca-SiO2 macrospheres were soaked in a 1:1 (volume) mixture of ethanol and 0.1 M Na2HPO4 to deposit hydroxyapatite layer (HAp-SiO2 macrospheres). Adsorption of bovine serum albumin and egg lysozyme on those Ca-SiO2 and HAp-SiO2 macrospheres under physiological pH (7.2) was well correlated to the Langmuir-type adsorption equation. The electrostatic interactions between the protein molecules and those macrospheres well interpret the adsorption isotherms, while the mesopores in the Ca-SiO2 contributed to some extent. A multi-layer adsorption model was proposed.

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