Key Engineering Materials
All components and mechanical parts have surfaces which are either exposed to a particular environment or are in contact with other components. Consequent corrosion and/or wear of the surface may then lead to destructive failure. A so-called “bad” surface is a favoured spot for crack initiation, resulting in a decrease in the fatigue, tensile properties and even toughness of materials. Although the development of new materials can improve the surface properties, this can also lead to a change in the properties of the substrate. For example, increasing the carbon content significantly improves the wear resistance of steels, but toughness has to be sacrificed. Increased cost is another major concern. Moreover, for some components, such as gears, a ductile substrate and a hard surface are required. In this case, surface treatment remains the only choice. Surface modification, also termed surface treatment, has thus been recognised as being a major emergent manufacturing technology for improving the surface properties, with minimal alteration of the substrate.
This special-topic volume reports on new progress made in the analysis and understanding of fracture and damage mechanics. The Finite Element Method is a well-established analytical tool for theoretical fracture analysis. The development of interface elements which combine aspects of both fracture and damage mechanics has permitted the prediction of both crack initiation and propagation. A number of the papers presented here deal with their use and further development.
Measurement, rigorously defined as ‘ascertaining the size, amount or degree of a measurand by instrumental comparison with a standard unit or by indirect calculation based upon theory’, is what makes science and technology different to imagination. Measurement is essential in industry, commerce and daily life. In the manufacturing industry in particular, measurement and instrumentation technology play increasingly important roles not only in the traditional field of manufacturing but also in the new fields of micro/nano technology and bioengineering.
This book presents recent advances in the use of measurement and instrumentation in the manufacturing industry. A wide range of topics are covered including: micro/nano-metrology，precision measurements，online and in-process measurements，surface metrology，optical metrology and image processing，bio-measurement, sensor technology，intelligent measurement and instrumentation，uncertainty, traceability and calibration and signal-processing algorithms.
The main purpose of this special-topic book, devoted to current trends in bioceramics, is to survey the present situation in this field, and to cover as fully as possible the various lines of research. The book includes many ceramic materials having clinical applications; some of them already entirely feasible, while others are expected to be available in the very near future.
This collection comprises 144 papers which were carefully selected from the over 300 papers submitted for the purposes of this special volume. All of the papers were subjected to peer-review by at least two expert referees.
The theme of this collection was “Innovation and Development of Surface Engineering Towards a Conservation-Minded Society”; a timely reminder of the obligation of advanced technologies to commit to energy & resource saving and environmental protection. Surface engineering must play a more-and-more important role in energy-saving, materials-saving and environmental protection in the coming years obey the 4R (Reuse, Reduce, Recycle, Remanufacture) rule and contribute to development of the world economy.
This special volume presents, discusses and reviews the latest advances in the science and technology of high-performance ceramics. The editors received more than 700 contributions from which, following a strict peer-review process, more than 598 manuscripts were chosen for inclusion in this collection.
This collection offers a fully representative snapshot of modelling activities as applied to processes involving extrusion. It covers a wide range of topics, grouped into the categories: benchmark, keynotes, material flow and constitutive equations, microstructure, seam welds and process optimization, dies and tools.