Recrystallization and Grain Growth

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Authors: E.B. Borisenko, B.A. Gnesin
Abstract: The effect of water and temperature on grain growth of plastically deformed doped potassium chloride has been studied. The results of experiments show that it is crucial to avoid contact with saturated water vapor in order to prevent a deformed crystal from decomposing. New grains oriented as twins with respect to the initial single crystals, as well as to the deformed matrix, grow fast in the presence of water vapor. The reasons why the properties of the deformed crystals in contact with water vapor deteriorate with time can conceivably be as follows: at first, strontium chloride hexahydrate forms on grain boundaries, then its particles are dissolved by the salt water solution, forming a liquid layer which affects grain boundaries, making a crystal fall to pieces in the end. A deformed matrix can be preserved for more than a year, given that the sample is placed in vacuum for about a month immediately after deformation and then stored at room temperature in the open air. Though a temperature of storage is not that essential in the range from minus -13 to +25°, some special heat treatment after deformation may be useful to dry a sample and, as a result, to defer recrystallization and, therefore, keep mechanical strength at a high level.
Authors: Angela Halfpenny, David J. Prior, John Wheeler
Abstract: Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is an extremely valuable tool, as it measures full crystallographic orientation information. This technique has been used to measure the statistics of misorientations between original ‘parent’ grains and recrystallised ‘daughter’ grains in a mylonitic quartzite. The angle of misorientation has implications on the controlling recrystallisation mechanism. The sample is a natural mylonitic quartzite collected from the stack of Glencoul, NW Scotland. The sample exhibits a common partially recrystallised microstructure. The data shows the average misorientations between the ‘parent’ and ‘daughter’ grains are 30º, this value seems too high for only subgrain rotation recrystallisation to be taking place. Moreover there is no gradation in the boundary misorientation from the internal substructure of the ‘parent’ grain to the ‘daughter’ grains. The internal substructure size of the ‘parent’ grain is bigger than the size of the ‘daughter’ grains. For subgrain rotation recrystallisation you may expect to see a core and mantle structure and for the ‘daughter’ grains’ to be of similar size to the internal substructure of the ‘parent’ grain. Another mechanism has either controlled the recrystallisation altogether or has become active after subgrain rotation had taken place and modified the microstructure.
Authors: A. Kellermann Slotemaker, J.H.P. de Bresser, C.J. Spiers, M.R. Drury
Abstract: Microstructures provide the crucial link between solid state flow of rock materials in the laboratory and large-scale tectonic processes in nature. In this context, microstructural evolution of olivine aggregates is of particular importance, since this material controls the flow of the Earth’s upper mantle and affects the dynamics of the outer Earth. From previous work it has become apparent that if olivine rocks are plastically deformed to high strain, substantial weakening may occur before steady state mechanical behaviour is approached. This weakening appears directly related to progressive modification of the grain size distribution through competing effects of dynamic recrystallization and syn-deformational grain growth. However, most of our understanding of these processes in olivine comes from tests on coarse-grained materials that show grain size reduction through dynamic recrystallization. In the present study we focused on fine-grained (~1 µm) olivine aggregates (i.e., forsterite/Mg2SiO4), containing ~0.5 wt% water and 10 vol% enstatite (MgSiO3), Samples were axially compressed to varying strains up to a maximum of ~45%, at 600 MPa confining pressure and a temperature of 950°C. Microstructures were characterized by analyzing full grain size distributions and textures using SEM/EBSD. We observed syndeformational grain growth rather than grain size reduction, and relate this to strain hardening seen in the stress-strain curves.
Authors: Elisabetta Mariani, Julian Mecklenburgh, David J. Prior, John Wheeler
Authors: H. Nguyen Xuan, S. Beauquis, P. Galez, J.L. Jorda, S. Phok, D. De-Barros
Abstract: Superconducting Tl-1223 and Tl-2223 films have been prepared in a two steps process : deposition of Ba:Ca:Cu = 2:2:3 precursor by spray pyrolysis and ex-situ thallination. Pure textured Tl-1223 films with good superconducting properties (Tc = 113K and Jc = 0.7 MA/cm2 at 77K, 0T) have been obtained. Almost pure Tl-2223 films have been obtained when precursor films have been thallinated with fluorinated sources.
Authors: G.M. Pennock, M.R. Drury, C.J. Spiers
Abstract: NaCl is plastically anisotropic and forms a well developed substructure during deformation at 0.3-0.5Tm. EBSD was used to assess subgrain misorientations up to 0.5 true strain in dry NaCl. Equiaxed subgrains were ubiquitous but misorientations along segments of subgrain boundaries differed. Three types of subgrain boundary were identified: boundaries that surrounded equiaxed subgrains, boundaries that partly surrounded mantle subgrains, and extended subgrain boundaries, longer than the equiaxed subgrains. All of these subgrain features were recognised at low strains, <0.15. Misorientations of the majority of equiaxed subgrains were generally <2° at 0.5 strain, although segments could reach higher misorientations along kink-like boundaries. Mantle subgrains along grain boundaries tended to develop higher misorientations than in core subgrains. Long subgrain boundaries reached very high misorientations along segments of their length by 0.5 strain. Small new grains formed at triple points and more rarely within grains. Microstructures in NaCl are similar to those found in aluminium. Therefore, the dominant mechanism of high angle subgrain development at 0.5 strain and at 0.4Tm is probably an orientation splitting mechanism rather than equiaxed subgrain rotation.
Authors: Dierk Raabe
Abstract: This article introduces a 3D cellular automaton model for the prediction of spherulite growth phenomena in polymers at the mesoscopic scale. The automaton is discrete in time, real space, and orientation space. The kinetics is formulated according to the Hoffman-Lauritzen secondary surface nucleation and growth theory for spherulite expansion. It is used to calculate the switching probability of each grid point as a function of its previous state and the state of the neighboring grid points. The actual switching decision is made by evaluating the local switching probability using a Monte Carlo step. The growth rule is scaled by the ratio of the local and the maximum interface energies, the local and maximum occurring Gibbs enthalpy of transformation, the local and maximum occurring temperature, and by the spacing of the grid points. The use of experimental input data provides a real time and space scale.
Authors: Elizabeth A. Holm, Mark A. Miodownik, Kristopher J. Healey
Abstract: The origin of the strain-free crystallites that nucleate the recrystallization process has been debated for decades. Realistic, three-dimensional computer simulations indicate that the nucleation event is the mobility-driven abnormal growth of certain subgrains. Based on these observations, we derive a model that incorporates subgrain topology, texture, boundary distribution and boundary properties to predict the frequency of the abnormal growth events that lead to nucleation. The qualitative and quantitative agreement between theory, simulation, and experiments is excellent.
Authors: Mischa Crumbach, Matthias Goerdeler, Günter Gottstein
Abstract: Schemes to model deformation inhomogeneities and nuclei distributions based on the grain cluster model for deformation texture simulation GIA are presented. The orientation distributions of nuclei in stable orientations, nuclei in grains with orientation gradients and nuclei due to subgrain growth at grain boundaries are predicted. Additionally, nuclei with a random orientation distribution are considered, reflecting nucleation at shear bands or large constituent particles. Furthermore, models for a quantitative assessment of the participating nucleation mechanisms are proposed. The resulting nucleation texture was input to the static recrystallization texture model StaRT. The through-process texture development during a sequence of several hot rolling, cold rolling and annealing steps in industrial production of the aluminum alloy AA5182 is presented.
Authors: S. Das, Eric J. Palmiere, I.C. Howard
Abstract: A common feature that stimulates modelling efforts across the various physical sciences is that complex microscopic behaviour underlies apparently simple macroscopic effects. Mathematical formulations attempt to capture the initial and evolving microstructural entities either implicitly or explicitly and link their effects to measurable macroscopic variables such as load or stress by averaging out any microscopic fluctuations. The implicit formulations that ignore the inherent spatial heterogeneity in the deforming domain form the basis of constitutive models for input to finite element (FE) systems. On the other hand, explicit formulations to capture and link microstructural entities rely on narrowing down the size of each finite element, thereby increasing the number of finite elements in the deforming domain, an effect accompanied by a rapid growth in computational time. The model described here, Cellular Automata based Finite Elements (CAFE), utilises the Cellular Automata technique to represent initial and evolving microstructural features (e.g., dislocation densities, grain sizes, etc.) in C-Mn steels at an appropriate length scale by linking the macro-scale process variables obtained using an overlying finite element mesh. Differences will be illustrated between single and two-pass hot rolling experiments.

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