Magnesium - Science, Technology and Applications

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Authors: S. Schumann
Abstract: The use of magnesium in motor vehicles today and in future depends on numerous technical and economical factors, though the cost factor is essential. How might use of magnesium in vehicles develop, what prerequisites are necessary, what R&D efforts are required ? These questions will be addressed as follows based on component and project examples. The main focus of the current magnesium applications can be seen in the drive train and in the interior. In the short term, these applications will be further expanded: doubling the amount is feasible. This will be supported by the currently developed Mg alloys with extended application potential (creep resistance). Mg components in the body, Mg-sheets and Mg-extrusions applications will appear initially in niche-market and premium vehicles. This can prepare the way for and eventually lead to greater use of Mg in volume-production models as part of a multi-material design concept. The essential prerequisites for such increased use of magnesium will be discussed.
Authors: Yo Kojima, Shigeharu Kamado
Abstract: In the current four-year term project in Japan, new platform science and technology is proposed as a core concept of research and development of advanced magnesium alloys together with understanding of their intrinsic characteristics. The research fields related to advanced super-light magnesium alloys for 21st Century have been focused to the selected three categories; ecomaterial design and processing, high qualification of mechanical performance, and high performance design and processing in functionality. On the basis of the obtained results, platform science and technology for environmentally benign and high performance magnesium alloys is constructed as an industrial base material for the next generation. As a result, numerous large-scale joint research and development projects on magnesium alloys based on partnerships between industries, academia and government has already started towards practical utilization since last year.
Authors: Joseph A. Carpenter
Abstract: The USA’s transportation system is nearly completely dependent on petroleum. Petroleum is used to satisfy 95 percent of America’s transportation energy needs, consuming two-thirds of all the petroleum used. Since roughly 55 percent of petroleum is imported from abroad, the implications of this dependency on USA’s energy security are readily apparent. Therefore, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) announced in January 2002 a new cooperative research effort known as the FreedomCAR Partnership to fund high-risk, high-payoff research into advanced automotive technologies with the potential for dramatically lowering this dependence. The new partnership replaced and built upon the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) that ran from 1993 to 2001 [1]. In January 2003, the energy-supply industry joined the FreedomCAR Partnership forming the FreedomCAR and Hydrogen Fuel Initiative (FC&HFI) to develop the technologies needed for the mass production of fuel-cell vehicles using hydrogen as fuel and the infrastructure needed to deliver the hydrogen to the consumer. The goal is to enable the automotive and energy-supply industries to make commercialization decisions in 2015 on largescale introduction of such vehicles and on developing the infrastructure beginning in 2020. The long-term transition of vehicles from gasoline to hydrogen is viewed as critical in lowering the dependence of the U.S. economy on foreign oil, and in reducing the environmental impact of the personal transportation sector. In addition to the longer-term work on fuel cells and hydrogen infrastructure, the FC&HFI conducts research on technologies with the potential for shorter-term energy efficiency and environmental benefits, such as new engine concepts, lightweight materials, and hybrid propulsion components. Magnesium is one of several lightweight materials being researched. This paper discusses the FC&HFI and its work on magnesium.
Authors: Jennifer Jackman, Jeffrey Wood, Elhachmi Essadiqi, Jason Lo, Mahi Sahoo, Su Xu, Jim Thomson, Wei Jie Liu
Abstract: Canadian researchers are actively engaged in the development of novel cast, wrought and composite materials that are based on Mg. An overview is provided of Canadian research projects for new applications of Mg alloys that are targeted to the growing needs of the automotive sector. The research work described is funded primarily through two federal programs: the Canadian Lightweight Materials Research Initiative, and the Materials and Manufacturing Theme of the AUTO21 Network of Centres of Excellence. It includes work on mechanical and corrosion performance of high-pressure die castings, gravity and low pressure castings using permanent and sand molds, sheet Mg development and magnesium matrix composites. The metallurgical research facilities at the CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory are featured.
Authors: Hong Tao Gao, Guo Hua Wu, Yu Fan, Wen Jiang Ding, Yan Ping Zhu
Abstract: Purification fluxes JDMR-1 containing B2O3 and JDMR-2 containing Na2B4O7 were developed for magnesium alloy. Density, viscosity and melting points of the two fluxes were measured. In the magnesium alloy iron concentration decreased from 0.024% to 0.004% and 0.001%, and average volume fraction of nonmetallic inclusions from 2.06% to 0.86% and 0.23% after JDMR-1 and JDMR-2 processing, respectively. Corrosion resistance and tensile properties of the magnesium alloy were greatly improved. Iron reduction mechanism was studied thermodynamically.
Authors: Xiang Guo Liu, Xiao Dong Peng, Wei Dong Xie, Qun Yi Wei
Abstract: In this paper, effects of strontium on Mg alloys and preparation technology of Mg-Sr and Mg-Sr-Al master alloys were summarized respectively. Prospects and applications of Sr-Mg master alloys were analyzed too. The results showed that thermodynamics calculation of reaction between SrO and Mg(l) showed that molten Mg can reduce SrO, in which excess of molten. The microstructure of hypoeutectic Mg-Sr binary alloys is composed of primary Mg matrix, and laminary eutectic phase(Mg-Mg17Sr2),but the microstructure of Mg-Sr-Al alloy consists of plate-like primary Al4Sr, laminary eutectic phase (Mg-Mg17Sr2 or Mg-Mg17Al12 or Mg-Mg17Sr2-Mg17Al12) embedded in primary dendrites of magnesium matrix. Additive strontium in Mg alloys can refine it grains, reduce degree of porosity, improve mechanical and thermal properties, therefore, Mg-Sr master alloys can be served widely as an additive for modification or as a constituent of Mg alloys, Al alloys, Zn alloys, etc.
Authors: Xin Li Tian, Qin Luo, Qing Dong
Abstract: The technology of the domestic-manufacture of the whole-set recovery equipment for the scraps of magnesium alloy has almost finished in China. According to the request of the process of the recycle of the scraps of magnesium alloy and the key technology, the general situation of the whole-setting of related domestic-manufactured equipments, the technology parameters of the main technological equipments and the plan for the development in the future described. The key technological indexes of domestic-manufactured equipments for quantitative outputting the melted magnesium alloy and domestic-manufactured multiple-protecting-gas commingling equipments keeps are as advanced or better than the overseas technologies of the similar equipments.
Authors: Onuralp Yucel, Selen Yiğit, Bora Derin
Abstract: In the present study, the production of magnesium metal from Turkish calcined dolomite containing 43.20 % MgO and 47.46 % CaO via Pidgeon process was studied under the pressure of 1 mbar. In the experiments, Turkish ferrosilicon containing 75 % Si and 24 % Fe was used as reducing agent. Effects of FeSi addition (90-150 % of stoichiometric requirement of silicon) and time (60-240 min.) were investigated on recovering of metallic magnesium from calcined dolomite (dolime) at the temperature of 1200 °C. Effects of fluxing additive (CaF2), calcined magnesite and different temperatures on Mg recoveries and concentrations were also studied using with 100 % of stoichiometric requirement of silicon for 180 min. It was found that magnesium recovery increases with increasing FeSi addition, temperature, time, CaF2 addition and decreases with increasing calcined magnesite additions under the pressure of 1 mbar.
Authors: Xin Wang, Jingchun Zang, Junhao He
Abstract: The crude magnesium is produced mainly by Pidgeon Process in China. Although Pidgeon Process has achieved certain technological advance in the past ten years, it is mainly by sacrificing energy, environment, and cheap labor. In the 21st century, human activities should be energy-saving and environment friendly. The equipment used in the Pidgeon process should be improved as early as possible by elevating its automatic level in order to save energy, protect the environment and realize scale economy of magnesium production. This will be the developmental trend of Pidgeon process in smelting magnesium.

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