Materials exhibit microstructures and textures that influence their use and properties. Xray and neutron diffraction allow characterization of the bulk texture, whereas Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) permits determination of the local texture. In many cases Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) remains necessary to characterize the substructure and the local texture for highly deformed materials. Depending on the scale considered, all these complementary techniques permit the coupling of texture and microstructure so that it becomes possible to control microstructure and its evolution during a processing route. Some examples in titanium aluminides, (α + β) titanium alloys and an Fe-Ni alloy will illustrate this challenge.