Advanced Materials Forum III

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Authors: Sasan Yazdani
Abstract: Control and prediction of the dimensional changes (DC) during austempering heat treatment of ductile iron is difficult because many factors influence this behavior. In the present work cylindrical specimens of ductile iron were used to study the effect of austenitizing temperature, austempering time, temperature, and prior microstructure on DC. The results show that DC increases with increasing austenitizing temperature in the range of 850 to 950°C with a fully ausferrite microstructure. Evaluation of different combinations of ferrite and pearlite contents in prior microstructure indicates that a fully ferritic structure has the highest DC. In addition, results show that by lowering austempering temperature from 400 to 250°C, DC increases.
Authors: Vanessa Livramento, M.T. Marques, Jose Brito Correia, Amélia Almeida, Rui Vilar
Abstract: The present study examines nanocomposites prepared by mechanical alloying of copper with other transition elements, which will produce a dispersion of stable boride and carbides reinforcement particles within a nanostructured copper matrix, at room temperature. Copper, niobium, boron and graphite powder mixtures were mechanically alloyed for several hours in a planetary ball-mill, in argon atmosphere and using a stainless steel container. The powder mixtures were produced with nominal composition of 10-30 vol.% NbC and 7-10 vol.% NbB2, using powders of pure elemental Cu, Nb, synthetic graphite and crystalline boron. The microstructural changes during milling of these powder mixtures were studied using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and microhardness measurements.
Authors: Isabel M. A. Duarte, John Banhart, António J.M. Ferreira, Mário J.G. Santos
Abstract: The aim of this work was to improve the joining between the fastening elements and the aluminium alloys foams. The research work was carried out on joining fastening elements into aluminium alloy foams during the foaming process, i.e., foaming around fastening elements. The foamable precursor material was produced by hot pressing the powder mixture of metal and a small fraction of the blowing agent. A steel mould containing a foamable precursor material and the fastening elements were heated to temperatures above the melting point of metallic matrix of foamable precursor material in order to obtain the final specimens. Each aluminium foam specimen (6061 and AlSi12) has 200x80x80mm and contains two fastening elements. The steel moulds design, the fastening elements geometry, the aluminium alloy composition, as well as the foaming parameters were studied in order to optimise the quality of the joints produced. The quality of the joints were determined by means of visual inspection and mechanical tests.
Authors: F. Potecasu, O. Potecasu, Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes, Viorica Muşat
Abstract: Lead hardened through oxide scattering is investigated as raw materials for the fabrication of the support gratings of lead accumulators in order to increase their life service. For the preparation of lead powder hardened through oxide scattering we used air jet pulverisation, a technique specific to powder metallurgy. Two research approaches are presented in the paper: one in which the oxide was introduced through oxidised lead powder, and the other in which additional lead oxide was introduced. Oxide dispersion into metallic matrix was achieved by pronounced deformation through extrusion of the powder. During extrusion, the particles are compelled to pass through the mould calibration zone and consequently they are considerably deformed. As an effect of this deformation, the particles of fragile oxide which cover the lead powder particles are crashed and carried away to the material flowing through the matrix longitudinally on the extruded semiproduct. The content of oxide introduced in matrix by the oxidised lead powder depends on the powder particle size. This paper presents the effect of the powder particle size and oxide phase dispersion in the metallic matrix on the mechanical, chemical and electrical properties of the extruded semi-products. The semi-products made from lead powder belonging to the grain size class of < 40 µm and oxide particles allowance have the highest mechanical resistance and the best corrosion behaviour. Using controlled oxidised lead powder better extruded semi-products are obtained in terms of mechanical resistance, corrosion behaviour and electrical conductivity as compared with lead and Pb-Sb alloy. A higher electrical conductivity represents an important advantage especially for the starting accumulators where the voltage fall should be as low as possible.
Authors: Maria José Tobar, José Manuel Amado, Carlos Álvarez, German Rodríguez, Armando Yáñez
Abstract: The self fluxing NiCrBSi alloys can produce coating layers by means of laser processing techniques. Main procedures are the laser post-treatment of previously thermal or plasma sprayed coats and the laser cladding, for which preplaced or continuously delivered powder (in this case aided by powder feeders) can be used. NiCrBSi alloys have an interesting property due to the presence of boron and silicon in its composition: they exhibit a relatively low melting point, making the laser cladding process easier. The layers obtained on metallic based materials are resistant to high temperature erosion wear and corrosion. However, if additional abrasive wear resistance is needed, the feeding with ceramic powders such as tungsten carbides (WC) is required. The high melting point of ceramics makes the laser cladding process complicated as the melt pool is made up of liquid metal plus not totally melted ceramic particles and the whole suffers the effect of the shielding and carrying gas flows, producing undesired instabilities. In this paper several combination of WC and NiCrBSi powders were tested. It is shown that the WC fraction in the mixture has a major influence on the obtention of pore and crack free clad layers. Bellow a certain ratio the meltpool appears to be more stable and less affected by the different gas flows used in the process, yielding dense NiCrBSi coatings with rather evenly distributed WC particles. In these conditions, the analysis and characterization of the produced coatings shows that the microstructure gains homogeneity without decreasing too much microhardness if compared with the pure ceramic layers.
Authors: João M.P. Coelho, D. Castro Alves, Manuel A. Abreu
Abstract: This work presents a technique for cutting glass tubes, without the need of pre-heating or any posterior action. Rotating the piece under a laser beam focused on the surface at the zone were it’s to be cut, stresses will not act, and while the material is dissociated at the laser beam irradiated volume, at its frontiers the glass reduces his viscosity allowing that the resulting faces become smoothed.
Authors: R. Soto, M. Boutinguiza, F. Lusquiños, Juan Pou, F. Quintero, Mariano Pérez Amor
Abstract: Following previous work focused on the laser processing of natural stones, we present in this paper the results of the study carried out to verify the feasibility of the lasers to drill slate tiles and granite slabs. The two types of laser equipments most used in the industry (CO2 and Nd:YAG) have been used to fulfil a comparative study. The influence of different parameters involved in the process, such as, average power, stand-off distance, and assist gas pressure, have been studied to characterise the drilled holes size and geometry. Results from the different tests show that it is possible to obtain holes according to the required dimensions at reasonable powers ( i.e. no more than 400 W for the Nd:YAG and 1 kW for the CO2 laser). Holes up to 2 mm can be achieved in a very reduced time without breaking of the stone plates. The overall results show that the laser drilling technique could be an alternative to mechanical drilling of plates of natural stones to be used in ventilated façades or for roof fixation.
Authors: Lino Costa, Rui Vilar, Tamás Réti
Abstract: The microstructure and properties of tool steel parts built by laser powder deposition (LPD) depend considerably on the build-up strategy and on the processing parameters used. This dependence can lead to inconsistent results which may limit the widespread acceptance of LPD. There is, thus, a need for efficient process optimisation tools that take into consideration the complex phase transformations that may occur during the part build-up process and their effect on final properties. A model coupling finite element heat transfer calculations with transformation kinetic theory has been developed, which allows the microstructure and property distributions in parts produced by LPD to be predicted. Application of this model to the deposition of tool steels not only explains the origin of the heterogeneous distribution of properties usually mentioned in the literature but also allows designing build-up strategies that consistently lead to homogeneous, high quality parts. Its application to the study of the influence of substrate pre-heating and idle time between the deposition of consecutive layers is illustrated in the present paper.
Authors: António Castanhola Batista, José P. Marinheiro, Joao P. Nobre, A. Morão Dias
Abstract: An inverse method for the characterisation of the elastoplastic behaviour of materials has been studied. The method is based on spherical indentation test data and numerical analysis of the indentation process, enabling to find a characteristic stress-strain curve. This method will be appropriate for elastoplastic behaviour study, mainly on surface hardened materials, when the standard methods cannot be applied. In this work, the method was applied to annealed and quenched steels, with homogeneous properties over the cross section. The obtained results are in good agreement with those obtained from the standard tensile tests. However, if the material does not follow a linear hardening law, the elastoplastic characteristics determined by the inverse method will depend on the indentation depth. For these cases a method for the evaluation of the actual behaviour law has been improved.
Authors: C.S. Abreu, Filipe J. Oliveira, J.R. Gomes, Manuel Belmonte, A.J.S. Fernandes, Rui F. Silva
Abstract: In-situ measurements of acoustic emission (AE) in self-mated tribological pairs of CVD diamond coated silicon nitride (Si3N4) were made with the purpose of investigating the relationship between AE signal and friction events. A good correlation is found between the energy dissipation/emission processes, therefore enabling the possibility of monitoring the different friction regimes occurring during the sliding contact of microcrystalline diamond (MCD) coatings. Deposition of MCD on flat and ball-shaped Si3N4 samples was accomplished using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) with H2/CH4 gas mixtures. The friction behaviour of self-mated MCD coatings was assessed using a reciprocating ball-on-flat geometry. The tests were run in ambient atmosphere without lubrication, the frequency (1Hz) and stroke (6mm) were kept constant while the applied normal load varied in the range 10-80N. The microstructure, surface topography and roughness of the MCD coatings were characterised by SEM and AFM techniques. The diamond quality was assessed from micro-Raman spectroscopy. The friction evolution was characterised by a short running-in period where the main feature is a sharp peak reaching values as high as approximately 0.6 followed by a steady-state regime with very low values in the range 0.03-0.04.

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