Abstract: The effect of cold wire drawing on texture of industrial low carbon steel wire was
investigated. On the other hand, the mechanism of recrystallization of drawn-wire was studied during different isothermal annealing below 723 °C. The structural evolution of wire was studied by optical microscopy, SEM, EBSD and X-Ray diffraction. From this study, a fiber texture was observed in deformed wire. However, a recrystallization reaction occurs after critical temperature
Abstract: The presented study was carried out in an industrial environment, using existing
equipments, tools and materials. A set of tests was performed based on production demands and restrictions, aiming to achieve the lowest surface roughness and beneficial residual stress state. The experimental test surfaces were obtained using high-speed milling (HSM) and precision surface grinding on a DIN X 36 CrMo 17 steel work piece, widely used in injection moulding industry. The grinded surface was considered as a reference surface in order to evaluate the high-speed milling
performance. For HSM tests, two types of tools were selected: tungsten carbide end mills with and without a TiAlN multilayer coating. The selected HSM main parameters ranged an upper, middle and lower limit value, considering the standard working values. The residual stress state at machined surfaces was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Experimental results are discussed in order to achieve a procedure to select the optimal machining parameters that meet manufacturing
Abstract: The quality of a mechanical component such as its geometrical accuracy stability and
fatigue life are significantly affected by the surface integrity generated by machining process. Residual stresses are a major part of the mechanical state of a machined layer and they can be beneficial or detrimental depending of their nature and magnitude. This study concerns phase analysis and residual stress profile characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and microhardness profile of AISI H13 ESR mould steel, milled using carbide and CBN tools.
Analysis of the cross-section of the AISI H13 ESR samples, milled using both tools, reveal a martensitic microstructure, with a very thin layer heavily deformed due to the machining process. However, no phase transformation was detected by XRD.
Concerning the residual stresses, the results show that they are predominantly compressive at the samples surface. However, depending of the cutting tools, the in-depth residual stresses profiles present different evolutions. This difference in the in-depth residual stresses profiles between the two kind of cutting tools is attributed to the different cutting tool parameters, including the tool geometry.
Abstract: Low-pressure powder injection molding was used to obtain AISI T15 high speed steel
parts. The binders used were based on paraffin wax, low density polyethylene and stearic acid. The metals powders were characterized in terms of morphology, particle size distribution. The mixture was injected in the shape of square bar specimens to evaluate the performance of the injection in the green state, and then sintered. The samples were injected under the pressures of 0.4, 0.5 and 0.7MPa
and at temperatures varying from 110 to 150°C aiming the optimization of the process. The results of the variation of injection pressure were evaluated by measuring the density of the green parts. Debinding was carried out in two steps: first, the molded part was immersed in heptane to remove the major component of the binder and then heated to remove the remaining binder. A second step
debinding and sintering were performed in a single step. This procedure shortened considerably the debinding and sintering time.
Abstract: The Fatigue tests under rotating bending conditions have been conducted on samples of a quenched and tempered Ck45 steel in two different conditions: (a) uncoated, (b) coated with an electroless Ni-Cu-P deposit, followed by a post-heat treatment (PHT) at 673 K for 1 h. Such a deposit had a thickness of approximately 10µm, with Cu and P contents of 6wt.% and 13.7wt.%
respectively. The results indicate that plating the base steel with this kind of deposit leads to a reduction of the fatigue life of the material. The reduction in fatigue life has been quantified in terms of the Basquin parameters of the materials tested under different conditions. The microscopic observation of the fracture surfaces of the samples indicates that the reduction in fatigue life is associated with the nucleation of fatigue cracks on the coating-substrate interface and the deposit remains well adhered to substrate during fatigue testing since interfacial cracks have been very
rarely observed. It is therefore concluded that, in the present case, the interface acts as a surface crack source or surface notch, which decreases the fatigue life of the coated material by reducing the crack nucleation stage.
Abstract: This work presents results of tensile testing of advanced high strength steels of interest for crashworthy structures: Dual-Phase and TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels. The improvements in vehicle crashworthiness observed in recent years have been closely linked to advanced high-strength steels that are currently being produced or in process of development. Amongst these, Dual-Phase and TRIP steels have presented excellent properties for use in crashworthy structures. For these steel grades an understanding of material behaviour at relevant
strain rates is needed as well as constitutive equations suitable for use in analytic and numerical calculations. For that purpose an experimental program of tensile testing was performed in a range of strain rates of interest for crashworthiness problems: 0.0001 /s to 1000 /s. The test results were used to compare material properties and to evaluate the Cowper-Symonds constitutive equation and
a modified version. Crush tests were performed at different speeds for top-hat and hexagonal tubes manufactured using laser welding and the results discussed in view of energy absorption.
Abstract: The main aim of this work is to study the influence of the heat treatment on the
transverse rupture strength of three M3:2 high speed steel obtained by differents techniques. PM Sinter 23 obtained by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of gas atomized powders, a vacuum sintered high speed steel obtained by uniaxial cold compaction and liquid phase sintering of M3:2 water atomized powders and a conventional (cast to ingot and hot work) VWM3C were submitted to hardening in
order to determine the influence of this treatment on the transverse rupture strength. The two PM high speed steels and the conventional one were submitted to heat treatment of hardening with austenitizing temperatures of 1140, 1160, 1180 and 1200 °C and tempering at 540 and 560 °C. The effectiveness of the heat treatment was determined by hardness tests (Rockwell C hardness). The microstructure was evaluated by scanning eletronic microscopy (SEM). At least five samples of
these three high speed steels were manufactured, austenitized, quenched and tempered as described above and fractured in three point bending tests in order to evaluate the influence of this treatment on the transverse rupture strength (TRS).
Abstract: The microstructure evolution of copper multicrystalline sheets, undergoing plastic
deformation in the sequences of strain paths rolling – tension and tension – rolling, was studied in the present work. For both sequences, two different types of change of strain path were studied: the tensile and rolling directions were parallel and normal to each other. Samples submitted to these four complex strain paths were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM observations have shown the typical dislocations microstructures for the prestrain paths in tension
and rolling. The dislocation microstructures observed during the second path were analysed and discussed as a function of the sequence and of the type of strain path change (parallel and normal sequential paths). Special microbands features were observed during the second path, for both sequences, rolling – tension and tension – rolling. The appearance of such microstructural features is discussed in terms of the sequence and type of strain path change and it is linked with the slip
activity during the second deformation mode.
Abstract: TiC and TiC–TiB2 powder mixtures obtained directly from titanium (TiO2) and boron (B2O3 or B4C) raw-materials by reduction with magnesium by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) contain, as impurity, large quantities of MgO under its periclase form, together in some cases with unreacted magnesium. Several leaching agents, namely hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, acetic acid and EDTA were tested aiming at removal of magnesium from these
powders as required characteristic for further work. Several parameters as leachant concentration, pH, reaction time and temperature were evaluated. Alternative leaching methodologies were compared in order to achieve magnesium removal yields over 98% and minimising at the same time the expected high matrix losses due to TiC and/or TiB2 co-solubilisation. As main conclusion it was
established that strong hydrochloric acid (6M) is the most efficient medium to remove magnesium from these particular TiC-TiB2 SHS mixtures. The leaching methodology used (controlled hot acid leaching under close conditions) allowed to minimise TiC and TiB2 solubilisation losses. Sulphuric acid is not an effective leaching medium and contaminates the resulting powder mixture with unfriendly sulphur. Using acetic acid, magnesium removal yield is low and titanium losses are
considerable. On the other hand, low aggressive EDTA complexant leaves TiC-TiB2 matrix unalterable but residual MgO remains over 6%. The proposed process seems to have potential for application in the general field of semi-micro materials purification.
Abstract: The aluminothermic reduction is a highly exothermal reaction between a metal oxide and aluminium. Conventionally this reaction is ignited by an electric resistance and the reaction products after cooling are in the form of a rigid block of mixed metal and aluminium oxide. In this work a new process of aluminothermic reduction is presented, in which the reaction is ignited by a hydrogen plasma. The niobium oxide and aluminium powders are high energy milled for six hours to form particles constituted of oxide and aluminum. Stoichiometric, substoichiometric and
superstoichiometric mixtures were prepared. The mixture was placed in a stainless steel tube (the hollow cathode) inside the reactor chamber. The chamber was firstly evacuated. Then hydrogen at low pressure was introduced. In the following an electric discharge between the cathode and the anode localized just above the cathode ignites the plasma. The plasma heats the particles on the surface of the powder layer and starts the reaction that proceeds in each particle since the reactants are intimately mixed. The heat generated by the reaction propagates deeper in the layer until the whole mixture reacts. Substoichiometric mixtures can be used because hydrogen takes part of the reduction. The Nb2O5 – Al starting powder mixture and the products of the reaction are characterized by laser grain size measurement and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). The products are in
form of powder or agglomerates of particles. Phases of reaction products was determined by XRD analysis and the particle size trough SEM.