Advanced Materials Forum III

Volumes 514-516

doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.514-516

Paper Title Page

Authors: Abílio P. Silva, Ana M. Segadães, Tessaleno C. Devezas
Abstract: In the processing of any particulate system (including refractory castables), the finer sized particle fraction (matrix or filler) is mostly responsible for the final system properties. Alumina fine powders were used in this work as raw materials, namely two tabular alumina fractions (–500 mesh and –230 mesh) and a commercial reactive alumina. Statistical modelling and the Response Surface Methodology (Statistica, Mixtures Designs and Triangular Surfaces module) were used to optimise the particle size composition of the three-component mixtures leading to matrix maximum flowability. The mixing methodology, aimed at minimising the water content, was kept constant. No-cement alumina castables produced with the various fine size powder mixtures, were used to prepare test-pieces. After drying and sintering, their mechanical resistance (MoR), density, porosity, water absorption, thermal shock behaviour and microstructure were evaluated. The results obtained evidenced the relevance of variables such as the water content per unit specific surface area, needed to reach the self-flow “turning point”, and validated the statistical optimisation method used. Moreover those results showed the existence of a matrix composition range, which favours the formation of a flow-bed that enables the aggregate self-flow.
604
Authors: Bruno Trindade, Marco Caetano, Nelson Duarte
Abstract: In this work, a lightweight Ti-10Mg-5Al (wt. %) alloy for structural components was produced by mechanical alloying. A metastable α-Ti(Al,Mg) solid solution was obtained after 50h of milling. Diffraction peaks ascribed to the Mg phase were detected in the XRD pattern of the sample heat treated at 600°C. This phase tends to oxidize with the increase of temperature giving rise to MgO. The structure of the mechanically alloyed and 900°C heat treated sample consisted of a Ti(Al) solid solution with dispersed MgO particles in the matrix. Hardness and Young’s modulus values obtained from ultramicrohardness tests confirm the strength improvement of the Ti-based alloy due to the MgO reinforcement.
609
Authors: Carlos A. Ramos, José Luís Esteves, Rui A. Silva, António Torres Marques
Abstract: Structural health monitoring of composite structures may be accomplished by measuring strains with embedded optical fibre sensors. In this paper, we present the performance of Bragg grating sensors, which are embedded into a carbon composite laminate and them bonded to the structure in analyse. The paper will briefly discuss the results and compare them with a free fibre Bragg grating bonded in the surface of the carbon composite laminate, with existing electrical strain gauge installation and with a numerical analysis by the finite element method.
614
Authors: Amilcar Ramalho, P. Vale Antunes, M.D. Braga de Carvalho, M. Helena Gil, J.M.S. Rocha
Abstract: The objective of the present work is the evaluation of the contents of inorganic particles in the mechanical and tribological behavior of polymeric matrix composites. In order to control easily the production of the specimens, a polyester resin was used as matrix and silica particles were added as inorganic filler. The volumetric particle content was ranged from 0 to 46%. In order to understand the influence of the inorganic load was evaluated the mechanical and tribological behaviors for several percentage of particle content was evaluated. There are several applications of inorganic fillers where their volume percentage is important, namely in dentistry. In posterior restorative resin materials, the particles percentage in volume goes up to 50 or more. In most cases spherical and irregular shaped fillers are dispersed randomly. In the studied composites the filler has irregular shape therefore the connection between the matrix and the particles is more effective. Function of the shape, concentration degree and particle size of the filler the composite mechanical properties vary greatly. All of these factors influence the mechanical properties of the particlereinforced composite, namely: wear resistance, hardness, flexural modulus, flexure strength and toughness The morphology of the failure surfaces was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the results were widely discussed.
619
Authors: Ana M. Amaro, Paulo N.B. Reis, Marcelo F.S.F. de Moura
Abstract: The aim of present work is to study the influence of low energy impacts on residual strength of carbon-epoxy laminates. Experimental tests were performed on [0,90,0,90]2s and [0,90]8 laminates using a drop weight-testing machine. The influence of the laminate stacking sequence is analysed under 1.5 J, 2 J, 2.5 J and 3 J impact energies, corresponding to a 0.91 ms-1, 1.05 ms-1, 1.18 ms-1 and 1.29 ms-1 of impact velocity, respectively. The impacted plates were inspected by CScan to evaluate the size, shape and position of the delaminations through the thickness of the plate. The same plates were inspected by C-Scan before the impact, to evaluate the eventual presence of defects produced during the manufacturing process. The residual flexural strength showed that the [0,90,0,90]2s laminates have better performance than the [0,90]8 ones. The explanation is related with the lower flexural stiffness of the antisymmetric lay-up relatively to the symmetric one.
624
Authors: Carlos A. Ramos, Orlando Frazão, Ireneu Dias, António Torres Marques
Abstract: The objective of this work was to study, understand and evaluate the effect of different geometric configurations of carbon plies, in the reflected wavelength spectrum of Bragg grating structure together with the effect of the recoating process of the sensor. The different possibilities depend upon the orientation and location of the optical fibre relative to the composite reinforcement orientation and the presence/absence of recoating. The material stacking sequence and the cure conditions were are also studied and the influence of the different possibilities was considered. The optical spectrum response obtained by the interaction of the optical fibre with the host material is shown.
629
Authors: Cristina M. Fernandes, Ana Maria R. Senos, José M. Castanho, M. Teresa Vieira
Abstract: The objective of this work was to study the effect of the Ni distribution on the reactivity and densification of WC-(Fe/Ni/Cr) composite powders. For such, stainless steel AISI 304, was used as a binder base composition which was enriched with Ni by three different processing methods: WC sputter deposition using a target of stainless steel with Ni discs, conventional wet milling of commercial powders (WC, stainless steel and Ni powders) and a previous coating of the WC particles with Ni, followed by the conventional mixing of this coated powder with stainless steel powder. The reactive sintering of these composite powders with identical compositions was investigated. The powder compacts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction with Rietveld analysis to quantify de crystalline phases present.
633
Authors: Flávia A. Almeida, Helena Bóia, Catarina Santos, Jorge Monteiro, Filipe J. Oliveira, Rui F. Silva
Abstract: The addition of titanium nitride (TiN) particles to a Si3N4 matrix reduces the intrinsic electric resistivity of this ceramic allowing it to be machined by EDM in cutting tools manufacturing. Gains can be expected given the cost reduction by the increase of productivity when shaping these hard to machine ceramic materials. Si3N4 ceramic matrix composites (CMC’s) with 0- 30vol.% of TiN sub-micrometric particles were produced by uniaxial hot pressing (HP) and pressureless sintering (PS). For the PS samples, EDM tests showed that machining of the composites is possible when they contain at least 23vol.% TiN particles what corresponds to a resistivity of 7.5cm. For HP samples at least 30vol.% of TiN is required to get an electroconductive material for EDM machining. This difference is due to the lower temperatures used in the HP process that delay the formation of a conductive network between the TiN particles.
638
Authors: Francisco Mata, Pedro Reis, J. Paulo Davim
Abstract: Polymeric matrix composite materials presents advantages in a great number of applications due to their high specific strength and stiffness, wear resistance, dimensional stability, low weight and directional properties. As result of these properties and potentials applications exists a strong need to understand the manufacturing processes, particularly the machining process of these composite materials. This paper presents an investigation above the modelization of the cut, turning of small workpieces, on two materials: a polymer PA 6 (Polyamide) and a composite PA 66-GF30 (reinforced with 30% of glass fiber). The tests were carried out polycrystalline diamond tools (PCD). The objective of this experimental study is to evaluate the influence of the glass fiber reinforcement on the friction angle (ρ), shear angle (Φ), normal and shear stresses (σ, τ), chip deformation (ε) under the cutting parameters prefixed (cutting velocity and feed rate). The experimental model was compared with the theoretical model of Merchant.
643
Authors: M.M.R.A. Lima, Regina da Conceição Corredeira Monteiro
Abstract: The effect of rigid inclusions on the densification during isothermal sintering of glass matrix composites was investigated. Mixtures containing borosilicate glass powder and 0, 5, 10 and 25 vol. % alumina (Al2O3) particles were prepared and powder compacts isostatically pressed at 200 MPa have been used. The sintering behaviour of the samples heated at 800°C during various times was investigated through density measurement, axial and radial shrinkage measurements. The microstructure was analysed by SEM and the crystalline phases present in the sintered composites were identified by XRD. The relative density of the isothermally treated borosilicate glass-Al2O3 composites decreased significantly with the increase in Al2O3 content because the presence of rigid inclusions retarded the densification of the compacts. The borosilicate glass exhibited anisotropic shrinkage behaviour, showing a radial shrinkage higher than the axial shrinkage and isotropic shrinkage was favoured by Al2O3 additions. Sintered glass showed a dense microstructure with some spherical closed pores. The microstructure of composites with 5 vol. % Al2O3 revealed that most of the pores were filled by capillary flow of the glass. The microstructure of composites with higher Al2O3 additions showed dense areas together with interconnected pores, which appeared at the sites of large glass particles in the green compacts.
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