Abstract: Nowadays’ optical frames are the result of a collaboration between designers and
engineers; it is a combination of high technology and art. Around 250 technical operations are
performed in order to make a high-quality metal frame, and there are 120 to 180 operations to make
a plastic frame. Although the Asian manufacturers of optical frames are prevailing in the world
market, a relatively rudimentary trial-and-error method is being used. A more systematic and
analytic approach is thus needed for them to grasp the evolution trends in the competitive market.
This paper discusses how Gabriel Tarde’s diffusion S-curve and the TRIZ theory can be employed
to analyze the evolution trends in optical frame design and manufacturing.
Abstract: Nowadays, most data in enterprise systems is still stored in relational databases, which
brings the majority of difficulties to achieve information interoperation between enterprise-level
heterogeneous systems. In this context, we propose a middleware to integrate information from
heterogeneous enterprise system based on XML standard. The proposed integration architecture aims
at providing a coherent and meaningful view of the integrated heterogeneous information systems by
leverage the back-end relational data sources. The architecture of the middleware relies on the
well-known mediator/wrapper architecture and satisfies the semantic integration features by several
main functions including data descriptions, schema transformations and integrations based on the
Abstract: The cooling system of a plastic injection mould is important as it affects the quality and
productivity of the polymeric components or assemblies. Contemporary cooling channel design is
confined to simple configurations of straight-drilled coolant passageway around the mould insert.
Undesirable defects resulted during injection moulding, such as warpage, are inevitable. The
application of rapid tool (RT) based on solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technologies with conformal
cooling channel (CCC) design has provided a profound opportunity in quality improvement of
polymeric components. In this study, a novel design of variable radius conformal cooling channel
(VRCCC) is proposed to achieve better uniform cooling performance. Thermal-FEA and melt flow
analysis are used to validate the method.
Abstract: Here a simple and direct method based on transfer printing has beep developed, in which
rigid stamps transfer metal films deposited on the relief surface of the stamps onto patterned organic
substrates. Ultra-precision machining technology is combined with conventional photolithography to
fabricate patterned Si stamps and organic substrates by replica molding. Experiment results indicate
that patterned metal films on Silicon stamps were successfully transferred onto PDMS substrates.
Fabrication of patterned metal films on organic substrates by transfer printing may suit for fabricating
sub-micrometer and nanometer scale features in a single process.
Abstract: Theoretical analysis and experiments on bearing race show that a suitable residual
compressive stress on roll path of bearing race can prolong its contact fatigue life. However, residual
tensile stress is often found on workpiece surface of bearing race. To actively control the residual
stress state and improve fatigue life of bearing part, a new method of pre-stress hard cutting is applied.
In this paper, the principle of pre-stress hard cutting for bearing race is introduced as well as the
experiments on it. In the experiments, residual stress, hardness and roughness of machined surface are
measured and analyzed. Moreover, micro-topography and texture characteristics of machined surface
are investigated and experimental results are compared with that by grinding. It is found that we can
get residual compressive stress and fine quality on machined surface of bearing race by pre-stress hard
cutting and increase its productivity as well.
Abstract: In the paper, the machining characteristics of two dimensional ultrasonic
grinding(TDUG) are analyzed, and based on the analysis of the working locus of abrasive particle
under TDUG and mechanical performances of fine-crystalline ZrO2 ceramics, a theoretical model
of material removal rateMRRis proposed under TDUG with workpiece adhered to ultrasonic
vibration respectively from the orthogonal directions. The model shows that any increase of static
load, size of grain, work speed, number of effective dynamic abrasive particle, the amplitude and
frequency of tool or any decrease of fracture toughness property and hardness will result in the
increase of the MRR, and the theoretical model of the MRR is tested, meanwhile the paper draws
the conclusion that the surface quality under TDUG is superior to that under common grinding,
which is tested by the means of grinding of fine-crystalline ZrO2 ceramics.
Abstract: A coupled thermal-mechanical model of plane-strain orthogonal metal cutting with
continuous chip formation is developed to investigate the residual stresses in the finished workpiece.
Deformation of the workpiece material is treated as elastic-viscoplastic with isotropic strain
hardening, and the numerical solution accounts for coupling between plastic deformation and the
temperature field, including treatment of temperature-dependent material properties. Automatic
continuous remeshing and adaptive meshing technique are employed to achieve chip separation at
the tool tip region and a satisfactory solution. The finite element model is well validated by
comparing values of the predicted cutting forces and residual stresses with experimental results.
Based on the established finite element model, the effect of rounded cutting edge radius on residual
stress distribution is analyzed. The results show that altered cutting edge radius clearly produced
significant changes in residual stresses. The maximum tensile residual stress and its penetration
depth decrease as the cutting edge radius increases.
Abstract: In die and mold industry, there is a tendency to use milling in the finishing machining of
dies and molds as an alternative to the traditional EDM process, consequently the surface integrity
in milling is considered as one of the most important indices. In this study, surface roughness,
micrograph of machined surface, surface microhardness, residual stress, and metallurgical texture of
the surface layer were considered. The influence of geometrical characteristics of cutting tools and
tool wear on surface integrity was studied. The results showed that hard milling of hardened die
steel could yield a quite satisfied surface integrity by proper process; compressive residual stress
was induced on machined surface, and the compressive stress induced in transversal direction was
almost 3 times of that in longitudinal direction; tool wear had a significant negative influence on
surface finish and caused the machined surface soften. These conclusions revealed the effects of
tool conditions on surface integrity and would play a practical significance in the machining of
hardened die steel.
Abstract: The effect of cutting fluids on surface characteristics of glassone of homogenuious
brittle materialsare discussed. In water both fracture stress and tough ness are greatly decreased
and many uncontrollable cracks are easily generated and propagate in maching.The other hand, in
spindle oil, both the stress and toughness becomes lager, and the crack generation and propagation
also restrained than those in water. In order to obtain the defect free surface of glass by machining,
both the generation of cracks and propagation should be controlled or restrained. Since they are
greatly affected by the surface and/or at the crack tip energy of glass, some methods for increasing
the energy are proposed.
Abstract: Data envelopment analysis (DEA) evaluation system of metal materials was established.
Evaluated metal materials were regarded as decision making units (DMUs). Property parameters of
metal materials were selected as inputs of DMUs, and machining process parameters were selected
as outputs of DMUs. Input and output data sequences could be obtained through data processing
operations. Mathematics programming model was founded and optimal values of all the evaluated
materials were calculated based on the model. Machinabilities of metal materials could be evaluated
by comparing the optimal values. Taken 1Cr18Ni9Ti, GCr15, Q235, 45# and LY11 for example,
machinabilities of five metal materials were ranked. Research results suggest that DEA method can
synthetically consider the relationship between property parameters and machining process
parameters. DEA is proved to be a reasonable and available method to evaluate metal material