The majority of concrete used nowadays is based on matrixes formed by hydrating Portland cement. Latest developments in nanosciences introduced a new generation of nano-sized materials possessing often remarkable mechanical and physical properties. These materials can be also used to improve or alter the characteristics of the binder matrixes based on Portland cement. The results showed that mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strength can be increased by up to 50% by addition of for example 0.23wt% of carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres and/or nanosilica appeared to improve also the frost resistance. Other properties, such as autogenous shrinkage decreased significantly after addition of carbon nanofibres. Nanosilica enabled an immense densification of the hydrated binder matrix, which in turn improved for instance the durability and mechanical properties.