Residual Stress Estimation of Tungsten Film by GIXRD
Subsurface residual stresses of tungsten films induced by Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) processes were investigated by the Grazing Incident X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD). Basis of the GIXRD measurement was introduced and the experiments were conducted for residual stress of tungsten film measurements. Experimental procedures of the GIXRD measurements were presented. The obtained residual stresses value of tungsten films from 800 nm to 400 nm varies from 1086.1 ± 105.2 MPa to 1670.6±103.4 MPa prior and after CMP process.
John Bell, Cheng Yan, Lin Ye and Liangchi Zhang
C. C. A. Chen et al., "Residual Stress Estimation of Tungsten Film by GIXRD", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 32, pp. 75-78, 2008