The I-V Characteristics and Percolation Threshold of the Cement-Based Materials Filled with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Some multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NMWTs) were firstly dispersed in aqueous solution with surfactant ultrasonic dispersion process, then mixed into cement matrix, casting six groups cement-based materials filled with varying NMWTs additions (nwt) (NFCMs), and as comparison, the plain referential cement paste was fabricated. The ampere-volt (I-V) characteristics and percolation threshold of this type of nanocomposites were focused by four-electrode method. Results show that, the I-V features of the reference has obvious nonlinearity due to polarized reaction within cement hydrated electrolytes after being induced by passing 0~±30 V voltages, those of the NFCMs with six different nwt still have somewhat nonlinear traits, which mainly attribute to the double-layer coatings between NMWTs and out-encapsulated cement hydration isolation. The resistivity (ρ) of the NFCM nanocomposite steadily decreases with the increment of nwt, which contributes to superior capabilities of charge transporter and near-field emission of NMWTs, and the overlapped chance of physical contacts between conducting aggregates of NMWTs and bulk matrix increases by nwt enhancing; although there is still some fluctuation on ρ, but it becomes weaker and weaker by nwt increasing. The percolation threshold of the NFCMs is nwt being 2.0%, and the integrated network pathways at micro-scale form between NMWTs each other through the correspondent NFCM, also revealed in microstructure.
J. L. Luo and Z. D. Duan, "The I-V Characteristics and Percolation Threshold of the Cement-Based Materials Filled with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 60-61, pp. 36-39, 2009