Abstract: In a recent study conducted by the author, microcrystallites were observed to exist in amorphous, short range ordered, structures of several metallic glasses. The observation is based on X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Diffraction (ED) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The data from the X-ray diffraction shows that the metallic glasses have typical amorphous structures. However, the data from the Electron Diffraction indicates that the metallic glasses possess polycrystalline structures. This discrepancy between the XRD and ED data can be interpreted and explained by diffraction theory [1,2] with the aid of Transmission Electron Microscopy. In fact results in the recent work show that with a mathematical relationship originally derived by Sherrer , one can determine the boundary line between microcrystallites in amorphous, short range ordered, structures and crystalline, long range ordered, structures. The boundary line of microcrystallites is defined with the aid of Transmission Electron Microscopy in which the size of subgrains, of the metallic glasses was determined from the mathematical relationship.
Abstract: The diffusion process in hcp Zr with low amounts of Fe being in solution or forming very dilute Zr-Fe alloys is analysed and discussed. The enhancement of the diffusion coefficient in alloys with increasing amounts of Fe is studied using both experimental and theoretical results. In contraposition with the assumption made in the literature that the Fe in solution in the hcp Zr lattice is the responsible, this enhancement seems to be more related with the total amount of Fe present in the samples. This idea is supported by measurements of Au diffusion in Zr with 50 to 150 gr/gr of Fe which shows increments in the diffusion coefficients even at the lower temperatures where the reported Fe solubility in -Zr is negligible.
Ab initio calculations using SIESTA and WIEN2k codes show several stable and meta-stable configurations for the Fe in the hcp Zr lattice in interstitial and off-centre positions, resembling the last ones a Zr3Fe like arrangement. These configurations are used in order to analyze the mechanism of both, self-diffusion enhancement and ultra-fast diffusion of Fe in -Zr.
Abstract: This work deals with a study of the nitriding potential effect on development of the compound layer during the gas nitriding of Armco Fe samples. The gas nitriding experiments were performed in an atmosphere of partially dissociated gas ammonia (NH3) at 520 °C under a nitriding potential varying from 0.25 to 3.5 atm-0.5 during 2 h. Through this experimental work including XRD analysis, optical and SEM observations of the cross-sections of the treated samples, it is shown that the microstructural nature of the compound layer depends upon the nitriding potential value. By use of the inverse problem based on a diffusion model previously published, it was possible to estimate the diffusion coefficient of N in ' iron nitride as a function of the applied nitriding potential. XRD analysis has shown that the compound layer was composed of iron nitride. A linear semi-logarithmic relationship relating the nitriding potential to the diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in iron nitride was also derived.
Abstract: The Au-Cd alloys continue to be important vehicles of research for the shape memory effect involving martensitic transformations and related phenomena.They transform to a variety of martensitic structures depending on the alloy composition and thermal history. Additionally, the Au-rich alloys display rubber like behavior involving thermo-elastic memory. Defects and diffusion play important roles in determining these properties. Defects and diffusion mechanisms in the Au- 47.5 - 50.5 at.% Cd alloys are examined. Diffusion in the nanometer regime and the states of defects are found to be important contributing factors to determine the shape memory effect, the variable martensitic transformations and the rubber like behavior, which are discussed in details.
Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulation was used for investigating hydrogen migration in Pd-Si alloy at a temperature Т = 300 K. The strong affect of hydrogen dynamics and its defects creation to structure of palladium matrix is stated. The partial radial distribution function calculation for silicon specifies a preferable arrangement of silicon atoms relative to each other in the second coordination sphere. Model calculations have shown that not only silicon atoms can affect hydrogen mobility. Hydrogen itself also can significantly change the diffusion of the other components in the alloy.
Abstract: Self-diffusion of 110mAg has been investigated in fiber reinforced QE22 magnesium alloy matrix composite. Short Saffil fibers (97% -Al2O3 + 3% SiO2) were used as reinforcement. The diffusion measurements were carried out in the temperature interval 648 – 728 K by serial sectioning method. The volume diffusion coefficients Dv (alloy without reinforcement) and the effective diffusion coefficients Deff (alloy with reinforcement) were obtained by analysis of the penetration curves. The silver diffusion coefficient in the interface boundary matrix/Saffil Di was also estimated. The temperature dependence of volume diffusion coefficients Dv was compared with previous data measured using 65Zn in the same alloy and with literature data for Zn impurity diffusion in Mg single crystal. It was observed, that the temperature dependence of both Deff and Di was significantly non-linear in the measured temperature interval. This behavior supports previous observations with zinc diffusion in the same alloy.
Abstract: The anisotropy of self-diffusion of K+ ions, ionic conductivity, and static permittivity in stoichiometric disordered K5Bi1-xRx(MoO4)4 (R = Nd, Gd; x = 0, 0.92, 1) single crystals is studied. A high value of the 2-D diffusion and ionic conductivity by K+ ions is detected. The fast ionic transport is parallel to the double layers formed by MoO4 tetrahedrons.
Abstract: The present investigation attempts to understand the friction welding characteristics of Aluminum alloy AlCu and steel AISI 4140. In spite, many trials were applied to achieve the sound weld zone of direct bonding between Aluminum and steel. The formation of intermetallic phase and crack in the near weld zone resulted in a lower tensile strength of joints relative to those of other welding technique. Therefore, to prevent intermetallic phase and crack formation at the interface, pure copper was used as insert powders for stress relief buffer layer. This study also envisages the influence of process parameters which include resident preform densities, friction pressure, upset pressure, and burn-off length on microstructure and mechanical properties of the welds. This work consolidates information on the aspects of diffusion joining of steel, copper and Aluminum component with wrought materials for practical execution. In the view point of tensile strength, the highest tensile strength between AlCu and AISI 4140 was acquired by using pure copper as insert powder.
Abstract: Air spindles in ultra precision machines produce rotational movements for the cutting tool or work piece. The common combination of a simple cylindrical rotor and stator is the design for most spindles. If the length of such a spindle is longer than usual, it will deviate from its stable situation and start vibrating during operation, especially in high rotational speeds. In order to overcome the vibration problem, one of possible solutions is the application of a spherical rotor and stator. The manufacturing and assembly limitations do not allow obeying the spherical shape exactly. Thus, the design has been committed according to a quasi-sphere. This form of the rotor will be more stable. The subsequent result of stability improvement will be less air pressure and power consumption. There are some specific characterizations of the spindle which must be calculated for the spherical case. For this purpose a computer model of the object was made. Then, the model was put under finite element study to find the best air pressure and air flow velocity condition.
Abstract: Ultra precision machine tools are used in nano machining technology. Two main assemblies creating rotational and linear motion, called air spindle and linear air table are used in these machines. The linear air table has been simulated experimentally like a linear air bearing. This bearing moves in the main direction, X, while it has straightness error motions in Y and Z directions. The error values vary due to different parameters. This investigation deals with the influential parameters and their proportion in the error value.
As far as the two mating surfaces are separated by a thin layer of pressurized air, the air pressure, location and amount of external load, are some of the parameters which have been studied. Results show that the more air pressure, the more stability and stiffer table. There will be less error motions as well. The error amount is not the same in X and Y directions. Finally, in order to have linear stiffness, the optimum air pressure, external load, and load location have been decided.