Abstract: Bulk samples of Se85-xTe15Bix (where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) glassy alloys are prepared by melt quenching technique. Thin films of the corresponding bulk samples are prepared by vacuum evaporation technique. I-V characteristics of Se85-xTe15Bix thin films are studied using Keithley 6487 picoammeter. Linear behavior of current has been observed at low voltage range and current is found to deviate from linearity i.e. tend towards non-Ohmic behavior in the higher voltage range. The value of resistance is also calculated in three different voltage ranges (0-90 V), (110-200 V) and (220-300 V) for the films under consideration. Maximum resistance has been observed for x = 1 and minimum resistance for x = 5. The conduction mechanism is discussed qualitatively and it is found to be of Poole Frenkel type for higher voltage range.
Abstract: The properties of SiOx layer prepared by magnetron sputtering is studied by photoluminescence Auger and SIMS methods. The depth distribution of emission characteristics and chemical composition is obtained. It is shown that as-sputtered SiOx layers are non-emitted and characterized by homogeneous enough chemical composition. High-temperature annealing in nitrogen atmosphere stimulates not only the Si nanocrystal formation but also the redistribution of silicon and the appearance of Si depleted region near layer-substrate interface. The last process is found to be dependent on excess Si content. It is found that decrease of silicon content in the depth of annealed layers is followed by the decrease of particle sizes that is proved by the blue shift of photoluminescence maximum. The possible reasons of the appearance of Si depleted region are discussed.
Abstract: In the light of published phosphorus and arsenic diffusion profiles [1,2] a non-Gaussian mathematical diffusion model is developed in this work based on separate forward and reflected impurity diffusion flows and called local density diffusion (LDD) model. The LDD model includes the rational function diffusion (RFD) model published in  and represents an improvement for near surface and tail concentration profile slope approximation by introducing just one single empirical fit parameter “r”. This single fit parameter is related to the given combination of impurity species (phosphorus: r=0.18; arsenic: r=0.43) in the applied host lattice system (silicon), but does not vary while approximating different experiments with different impurity surface concentrations and penetration depths [1,2]. Based on the LDD approximation in this work a surface enhanced diffusivity for phosphorus and a tail decelerated diffusion for arsenic is suggested in comparison to RFD model approximation only. The local density diffusivity is found to be non-linear along the penetration path and reaches its maximum at a distance LLDD from the surface.
Abstract: Many aluminum-based alloys are strengthened by a heat treatment process known as age hardening. The aim of this work was to produce a high-strength 6xxx series aluminum alloy by adjusting the processing conditions, namely solutionizing and artificial aging. It consists of heating the alloy to a temperature at which the soluble constituents will form an homogeneous mass by solid diffusion, holding the mass at that temperature until diffusion takes place, then quenching the alloy rapidly to retain the homogeneous condition. In the quenched condition, heat-treated alloys are supersaturated solid solutions that are comparatively soft and workable, and unstable; depending upon the composition. After solution treatment and quenching, hardening is achieved either at room temperature (natural aging) or by precipitation heat treatment at a suitable temperature (artificial aging). Precipitation heat treatments are generally low-temperature long-term processes. Temperatures range from 115 to 190°C and times vary from 5 to 48 h. Choice of time-temperature cycles for precipitation heat treatment should receive careful consideration. The objective is to select the cycle that produces the optimum precipitate size and distribution pattern. The mechanical characterization of heat-treatable 6xxx (Al-Mg-Si-Cu based) 6063 wrought aluminum alloys was studied. Their effects were investigated in terms of the microstructure, using positron annihilation lifetime techniques and mechanical properties monitoring via Vickers hardness measurements. The hardness is the resistance of a material to plastic deformation, which gives it the ability to resist deformation when a load is applied. The greater the hardness of the material, the greater the resistance it has to deformation. The hardness of 6063 alloy has its maximum value (58) when aged for 8 hours at 175oC after quenching from 520oC; which is the solution temperature of this alloy. The hardness conformed to the literature. We also test the aging ability of the 1xxx aluminum alloy: 1050.
Abstract: Rapidly solidified Al-Zn alloys with Zn contents ranging up to 50 wt.% were made under vacuum, by high-frequency (HF) induction melting, from compacted mixture targets of Al and Zn of fine (99.99 % purity) elemental powders. The microstructural characteristics and strengthening mechanisms were investigated. The crystallographic microstructures were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and optical microscopy observations as well as Vickers microhardness testing. Detailed overviews of alloying solubility of zinc in aluminium were given. Extensive solid solutions of CFC Al were found in the (HF) Al-Zn alloys, and a higher Vickers microhardnesses compared to that of pure (HF) aluminium.
Abstract: Elemental powders of tungsten, nickel, iron and cobalt of compositions corresponding to (W-3.2Ni-0.8%Fe), (W-3.5Ni-1.5%Fe), and (W-4.5Ni-1.0Fe-1.5%Co) were mechanically alloyed in a tumbler rod mill for 2 hrs. Mechanically alloyed powders were liquid phase sintered at 1500oC for 90 min in vacuum. The sintered materials were heated up to 1150-1200oC in vacuum atmosphere, followed by quenching in water to suppress the impurity segregated at grain boundary. The sintered materials were subjected to cold-working by swaging from 8-30% reduction in area. The swaged specimens were age-hardened at 700oC.
Full characterization for both the elemental powders and the sintered tungsten alloys were performed using optical microscopy, SEM analysis, EDS quantitative analysis, X-ray diffraction, hardness and compression testing.
This paper will discuss the effects of the elemental powders characterization and the liquid phase sintering parameters on the microstructure and strength of these three tungsten heavy alloys.
Abstract: It is well known that the crack growth rate fatigue and stress corrosion cracking can be approximated by a power function of the stress intensity factor. In this study, stress intensity factor for elliptical crack under the uniform tension in linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) is investigated therefore for this purpose, a pressure vessel modeled by finite element. A crack modeled on the pressure vessel and then the stress intensity factor for crack propagation in different methods is evaluated. Finite element analysis calculates stress intensity factor in the values of the J-integral are based on the stress intensity factors, JK, and by evaluating the contour integral directly, JA. The stability of crack growth is considered so the ductile crack extension is determined by pursuing the equilibrium between loading and crack resistance. Using especial method of meshing caused to have accurate results. This method causes to decrease run time and considerable accuracy. Then stress intensity factor is calculated for different position of the crack such as crack front and then compared to each other.
Abstract: The present paper investigates the effect of microstructural variations upon the wear properties of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel using a dry sliding wear test. Optical, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) have been used to characterize the microstructures and identify the evolution of various precipitates in terms of their shapes, sizes and morphologies. The wear behavior of this steel was investigated using a disc-on-roller multiple wear tester under dry sliding conditions, rubbing against EN-31 steel. Samples were tested at 100N load and 500rpm sliding speed at room temperature. A decrease in wear loss was measured continuously for up to one hour for all the samples. The results indicated that the wear behavior of this steel was highly influenced by microstructural variations taking place during service exposure. The precipitation of globular Cr- and Mo-rich carbides has been found to improve the wear behavior of this steel at room temperature. Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM) of worn surfaces have been used to correlate the results obtained
Abstract: On the basis of the discovered phenomenon of phase and structure formation of metallic materials being electrodeposited through a stage of liquid state it was predicted and experimentally proved the following: a) formation of intermediate phases in the form of intermetallides in electrodeposited metallic alloys during the electrochemical crystallization of a liquid phase of two metals of different valences; b) formation of intermediate phases with complex crystal lattices in the form of carbides during solidification of a liquid phase of a transition metal alloyed with carbon; and c) formation of eutectics in electrodeposited metallic alloys as a result of decomposition of a liquid phase into two separate solid phases during its solidification. Intermetallides Cu5Zn8 and Cu6Sn5 in electrodeposited alloys of Cu-Zn and Cu-Sn systems, carbides Fe3C and Cr3C2 in electrodeposited iron and chromium alloyed with carbon, and eutectics in electrodeposited alloys of Sn-Zn and Pb-Cu systems were found.
Abstract: The aim of this work was to produce a high strength 6xxx series Aluminum alloy by adjusting the processing conditions, namely solutionizing and natural aging. It consists of heating the alloy to a temperature at which the soluble constituents will form a homogeneous mass by solid diffusion, holding the mass at that temperature until diffusion takes place, then quenching the alloy rapidly to retain the homogeneous condition. In the quenched condition, heat-treated alloys are supersaturated solid solutions that are comparatively soft and workable, and unstable, depending on composition. At room temperature, the alloying constituents of some alloys tend to precipitate from the solution spontaneously, causing the metal to harden in about four days. This is called natural aging. The mechanical characterization of heat treatable 6xxx (Al-Mg-Si-Cu based) 6066, 6063 wrought aluminum alloys was studied. Their effects were investigated in terms of microstructure using positron annihilation lifetime technique and mechanical properties by hardness measurements. The hardness is the Resistance of material to plastic deformation, which gives it the ability to resist deformed when a load is applied. The greater the hardness of the material, the greater resistance it has to deformation. Hardness measurement can be defined as macro-, micro- or nano- scale according to the forces applied and displacements obtained. Micro hardness is the hardness of a material as determined by forcing an indenter such as a Vickers indenter into the surface of the material under 15 to 1000 gf load; usually, the indentations are so small that they must be measured with a microscope. During this work we are monitoring the effect of natural aging on the properties of positron lifetime and Vickers hardness parameters. The Vickers hardness of 6066 alloy has a maximum value(80) after (10)days of quenching at 530 which is the solution temperature of this alloy .the hardness of 6063 alloy has a maximum value (40) after (14)days of quenching at 520 which is the solution temperature of this alloy. The hardness which is conformed to the references.