Abstract: An empirical approach to the description of diffusion paths in the ternary system Fe-Co-Ni is developed. It is shown that the experimentally determined diffusion path in this system can be described by the universal function, which contains two parameters, extracted from experimental data. The values of these parameters and their possible dependence on initial compositions of diffusion couples are discussed. Using the universal function, typical diffusion paths for the system Fe-Co-Ni have been calculated. It is shown that the calculated diffusion paths are in a qualitatively good agreement with the available experimental data.
Abstract: The paper deals with the molecular-dynamics simulation of the self-diffusion of fluid molecules in porous media using the hard-sphere potential. A study is made of the velocity autocorrelation functions of the molecules and dependences of the self-diffusion coefficient on the pore sizes, po-rosity, fluid density, and adsorption time.
Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a bioactive ceramic, employed mainly in bone tissue engineering since it exhibits superior biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Attempts have been made to synthesize HA nanoparticles with chemical composition, morphology, crystallinity and Ca/P ratio similar to that of natural bone. While wet chemical methods are becoming more popular for synthesis of HA nanoparticles, ultrasound irradiation has shown to be an effective method to increase the rate of production and also to decrease particle size. However, process variables must be carefully selected. In the present study, HA nanoparticles with desirable characteristics have been synthesized by the aid of ultrasound irradiation and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron microscopy techniques.
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to study the fluid flow regimes in a porous media with high enough velocities (in the range of laminar flow). In our study, the results obtained from expanding Darcy’s equation to Forchheimer’s equation with volume averaging method have been used for studdying the fluid flow behavior in 2D and 3D models. Results of numerical simulations show that in all cases, there are weak inertial regime, strong inertial regime and transition zone. In all the cases, the domain of weak inertial regime is relatively narrow, and this problem is intensified in the 3D numerical simulations. This could be the reason of missing the weak inertial regime in experimental studies on inertial fluid flow in porous media. The domain of strong inertial regime in 3D models is so wide that after Darcy’s regime, the governed regime is the strong inertial regime. To obtain more accurate and analytical results, more studies should be done on the 2D and the 3D flow regimes.
Abstract: The natural convection in a square cavity with a heated horizontal plate containing a nanofluid (water and Ag) is simulated numerically. The heated plate and vertical walls are maintained at a constant temperature, Th and Tc, while the horizontal walls are adiabatic. The nanofluid is assumed to be incompressible and the flow is considered to be laminar. The continuity, momentum and energy equations written in terms of the primitive variables are discretized using a control volume approach and the SIMPLER algorithm. A parametric study is performed and the effect of the Rayleigh number, the location of the heated plate and the volume fraction of the nanoparticles on the fluid flow and the heat transfer inside the cavity are investigated. The results show that the mean Nusselt number of the vertical walls increases with increasing the volume fraction of the nanoparticles. Moreover, for a constant volume fraction of the nanoparticles, the Nusselt number of the vertical walls decreases substantially as the location of the heated plate varies from top to bottom of the cavity.
Abstract: The paper presents microstructural assessment results of thermal barrier coatings deposited by plasma spraying of powders with the formula Gd2Zr2O7. Standard parameters of the air plasma spraying (APS) method were used. A visual assessment of layers and quantitative and qualitative characteristics of an outer ceramic layer with the laser microscopy method were performed. Roughness and other geometric parameters describing the TBC surface were determined. Phase composition analysis of the ceramic layer was also carried out. Microstructural assessment of the layers for meeting the assessment criteria of the ceramic coatings was also carried out. The bondcoat and ceramic layer porosity assessment was performed. The TBC system general quality was assessed for presence of cracks, delamination and massive porosity. It was found that the new type of layers obtained meet the quality requirements used for assessment of the conventional layers obtained by spraying 8YSZ zirconia.
Abstract: The paper presents the results of basic thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings on the base of rare earth zirconate of type Gd2Zr2O7, deposited by the air plasma spraying (APS) method. Measurements of thermal diffusivity with the laser-flash method were performed within the temperature range of 25°C-1100°C with two and ten hours of annealing. The measurements were performed on the single-layer (AMS 5599 alloy), double-layer (AMS 5599 alloy + NiCrAlY interlayer) and three-layer samples (AMS 5599 alloy + NiCrAlY interlayer + ceramic layer of RE2Zr2O7). By using the NETZSCH Proteus software and the results for the single-layer sample, thermal diffusivity of the interlayer itself was determined by means of the double-layer model. A similar method was used to determine the thermal diffusivity of the ceramic layer. The obtained results showed lower thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity for the new type of coatings in comparison with the standard zirconium concerning TBCs. Those results are slightly different compared with the results obtained for the initial powders, which indicates a crucial role of the ceramic layer microstructure (architecture of cracks and porosity).
Abstract: The Ni-base superalloy, INCONEL740, whose major alloying elements are 24.31 wt.%Cr-20 wt.%Co, was corroded in an Ar-0.2%SO2-gas atmosphere between 800 and 1000oC for 50, and 100 hr in an electric furnace. The scales formed after SO2-gas corrosion tests were generally adherent at 800 and 900oC. At 1000oC, massive scale spallation however occurred over the entire surface. The scales consisted of Cr2O3, (Ni,Co)Cr2O4, and TiO2, indicating that not sulfidation but an oxidation reaction prevailed owing to the thermodynamic stability of concerning oxides.
Abstract: During the last two decades the macroscopic formulation of moisture transport in wood below the fiber saturation point has motivated many research efforts. From experiments the difference in steady-state and transient transport processes is well known, but could not be explained in a fully physically motivated manner. In the following article, first the microstructure of wood is depicted, followed by a description of the physical background of steady-state and transient transport processes in wood, and thereon based mathematical formulations. For a correct macroscopic description of transient transport processes, three coupled differential equations have to be solved in parallel, which is done using the finite element method. The validation of the whole model by comparison of model predictions with experimentally derived values is currently in progress and will be published in near future.
Abstract: Excellent physical and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them outstanding candidate as fillers to fabricate multi-functional polymer composites. It is assumed that a high level of dispersion in the preparation stage may lead to a more effective nanocomposite. In this research, the dispersion state of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) at various contents in an unsaturated vinyl ester resin is investigated during fabrication by on-line monitoring the viscosity of suspensions as a function of sonication time and energy introduced. The results show that initial viscosities of suspensions increase by adding more MWNTs to the resin. The viscosities gradually increase during the sonication and reach to maximum values, when it is assumed that the dispersion is completed. After this step the viscosity subsequently decreases. The energy density required to achieve a good dispersion of MWNTs in vinyl ester is obtained. The qualities of dispersion in cured composites are characterized by examining the sections using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to confirm the results of viscosity measurements. The stabilization of MWNTs is achieved by adding a commercial dispersant and stabilizer, BYK-P 104S, by 0.0375 wt% . The results indicate that adding more surfactant to the suspension makes it unstable and leads to flocculation. The stabilization of suspensions is investigated by using viscosity measurement. Also, FT-IR is used to determine the possible mechanism of surfactant to stabilize the MWNTs in vinyl ester.