Phosphorus-doped p-type ZnS NWs were synthesized by chemical deposition method. The as-synthesized NWs shows obvious p-type conduction with a hole concentration of 8.35 × 1017 cm-3. ZnS-Si core-shell nanoheterojunction was fabricated by depositing Si thin film on the surface of ZnS NWs through a sputtering method. The core-shell nanostructure exhibited excellent photoresponse to white light and UV light. Under UV light illumination, a high performance with a responsibility of ~ 0.14 × 103 AW-1, a gain of ~ 0.69 × 103 and a detectivity of ~ 1.2 × 1010 cmHz1/2W-1 were obtained based on the ZnS-Si core-shell nanoheterojunction. This new nanostructure is expected to play an important role in the next-generation optoelectronic devices.