Abstract: The proper allocation of the limited R&D resources under the restructuring of the electric industry is a primary motivator for this electricity technology roadmap (eTRM) initiative. Because the major interests of CEOs could be the short term profit of their company under the competitive electric industry, it would wrong of them to cut back on the long term R&D budgets which make it impossible to develop all the technologies. Therefore, we should select and support only the favorable and competitive technologies to meet the future market needs using the TRM approach with the concept of "Selection and Concentration." This study aims at defining the key technologies basis from the forecasts of what is possible or likely to happen in the future and planning the course of action for the technology development in the electricity field in Korea. The selected technologies could be the candidates for the
mid and long term R&D program supported concentrically by the Electricity Industry Infrastructure Fund.
Abstract: Spontaneous levels of the chromosome aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of 173 women were analyzed in the course of a medical examination of the residents of the Bryansk District territories (Klintsy Region, and the town of Klintsy) contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident in April 1986. The study population included only women who had been premenopausal at the time of the accident (mean age in 1986 was 23.9±0.7 years, ranging 2 to 56 years). The territory
contamination with 137Cs ranged from 1.8 to 23.7 Ci/km2, the mean value being 7.5±0.2 Ci/km2. The range of the calculated absorbed thyroid doses was 30 to 340 mGy (in average, 52.3±3.3 mGy). The number of women with benign breast diseases (BBD) was 116 (67%). All recognizable chromosome lesion types were scored in the first in vitro division metaphases stained with azure-eosin. The mean total aberration frequency in the sample studied was 3.5±0.2 per 100 metaphases, the main contribution being made by the chromatid deletions, which is typical for a normal spontaneous aberration pattern. Based on the results of the cytogenetic analysis, the study population was subdivided into two groups. Group A (128 women) included subjects who showed normal patterns of spontaneous chromosome aberrations. Abnormal patterns, including the aberration frequencies significantly (at p<0.05) exceeding the mean group value and/or the presence
of chromosome type exchange aberrations, were found in 45 women (group B).
Statistical hypotheses on the possible correlations between the cytogenetic anomalies, BBD, level of the territory radiation contamination, and the absorbed thyroid dose were tested. The proportion of women with BBD was approximately the same in groups A and B (68 and 64%, respectively; p=0.665), which did not allow us to state that abnormal chromosome patterns can be used as diagnosis markers.
The data obtained showed some positive trends between the cytogenetic anomalies, breast disorders, level of the territory contamination and the thyroid dose. In addition, it is interesting to note that the inclusion of the body mass index (BMI) into the data analysis showed that, both in women with cytogenetic anomalies (group B) and among the women with BBD, this index was essentially lower than in the respective comparison groups. The BMI differences could not be explained by the age differences, since the latter were insignificant in all the cases (p>0.8).
Abstract: This paper presents a novel fault location algorithm for a distance relay of a transmission line. Under the assumption that the source voltages and impedances of both ends are not changed before and after a fault, the fault current and the voltage of the terminal end are estimated including the loading condition. Then, the fault location expression, independent of the fault resistance, is derived using these voltages and currents through a loop analysis, in the manner that the in-feed effect
of the terminal end is eliminated. The suggested algorithm is applied to a typical transmission line to show its effectiveness.
Abstract: This paper suggests a protective effectiveness index as a performance index for the optimal or adaptive protection of a power distribution system. The setting rules are considered as a performance measure of every parameter and used as a primary evaluation element. The rules are categorized into three groups for the hierarchical evaluation. After all the parameters are evaluated, the device-wise, coordination-wise and system-wise protective effectivenesses are calculated, in turn. The proposed method is applied to a typical distribution network to show its effectiveness.
Abstract: To manufacture SLGTs (Self-Luminous Glass Tubes), 4 core technologies are needed: coating technology, tritium injection technology, laser sealing/cutting technology and tritium handling technology. The inside of the glass tubes is coated with greenish ZnS phosphor particles with sizes varying from 4~5 [µm], and Cu, and Al as an activator and a co-dopant, respectively. We also found that it would be possible to produce a phosphor coated glass tube for the SLGT using the well established cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) bulb manufacturing technology. The conceptual design of the main process loop (PL) is almost done. A delicate technique will be needed for the sealing/cutting of the glass tubes. Instead of the existing torch technology, a new technology using a pulse-type laser is under investigation. The design basis of the tritium handling facilities is to minimize the operator's exposure to tritium uptake and the emission of tritium to the environment. To fulfill the requirements, major tritium handling components are located in the
secondary containment such as the glove boxes (GBs) and/or the fume hoods. The tritium recovery system (TRS) is connected to a GB and PL to minimize the release of tritium as well as to remove the moisture and oxygen in the GB.
Abstract: The charge storage process of amorphous hydrated manganese dioxide (MnO2) as a pseudo-capacitor involves a fast redox reaction at the electrode surface. In order to understand the charge storage mechanism of MnO2 as a pseudo-capacitor in an aqueous KCl solution, we monitored the change of the capacitance by varying the pH of the solution, the cation of the electrolyte, the concentration of the KCl electrolyte, and the solvent. The charge storage mechanism of a metal oxide electrode such as MnO2 is concluded to involve a fast redox reaction through both
the potassium ion exchange, MnO2 + δK+ + δe- ⇔ MnO2-δ(OK)δ and the proton exchange, MnO2 + δH+ + δe- ⇔ MnO2-δ(OH)δ dependent upon the availability of the cations in the electrolyte.
Abstract: A series of cation exchanged Y-zeolites were prepared by exchanging cations with various alkali (M+, M= Li, Na, K, Cs) metals. The structural and catalytic properties of the alkali metal exchanged Y-zeolites have been investigated by a number of analytical techniques. Comparative elemental analyses were determined by an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy X-ray (EDS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
(ICP-AES) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) before and after cation substitution. The framework and non-framework Al coordination and the Si/Al ratios of the Y-zeolites were investigated by MAS Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The Al NMR spectra were characterized by two 27Al resonance signals at 12 and 59 ppm, indicating the presence of the non-framework and framework Al respectively. The intensities of these resonances were used to
monitor the amount of the framework and non-framework Al species in the series of exchanged zeolites. The 29Si NMR spectra were characterized by four resonance signals at -79, -84, -90, and -95 ppm. Changing the alkali metal cations in the exchanged Y-zeolites significantly altered the extent of the octahedral/tetrahedral coordination and the Si/Al ratio. The Fourier Transform Infrared spectra of the CO2 adsorbed on to the exchanged Y-zeolites showed a low frequency shift, as the atomic number of the exchanged alkali metal increased. In addition, the catalytic activity of these samples for NOx reduction were tested in combination with a non-thermal plasma technique and interpreted based on the above structural and spectroscopic information.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop a WIMS/CANDU code for a lattice calculation on the basis of WIMS-D5 code for the safety analysis of CANDU reactors. To assess WIMS-D5 applicability to a CANDU reactor, a lattice model was developed for CANDU-6 reactors at the Wolsong site. As for the benchmark of the code validation, a code-to-code comparison was performed between the WIMS-D5 code with both the 69- and 172-energy groups of ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library and the WIMS-AECL code with the 89-energy group. The comparison studies of the reactor physics parameters such as the void reactivity and the coolant/fuel/moderator temperature coefficients were conducted with a change of the internal isotopic composition due to the fuel burning-up using both WIMS-AECL and POWDERPUFS-V (PPV) codes. The results show that the present results from WIMS-D5 code and WIMS-AECL code agreed well with those of the PPV at the beginning of the fuel burn-up phase. As the burning-up progresses, the results of
WIMS-D5 show a large deviation from those of PPV for the CANDU 6 reactors.