High-Performance Ceramics III

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Authors: Chong Gao Bao, Wei Pan, He Zhuo Miao, Long Hao Qi
Abstract: The erosion resistance performances of high-Cr cast iron Cr15Mo3 and three kinds of structural ceramics, a-Al2O3, ZTA, Si3N4, were investigated in flowing suspensions of solid particles with a rotary disk erosion wear tester. The microcosmic failure mechanisms of their wear surfaces were analyzed. The results showed that the erosion resistance of Si3N4, ZTA, a-Al2O3 is 21.8, 8.2, 5.6 times than that of Cr15Mo3 respectively. For ceramic materials, toughness and strength are two main factors that affect erosion resistance rather than hardness. The wear rate of ceramic materials is in proportion to the strength and the biquadratic toughness. Due to erosion, Cr15Mo3 is worn out most in the whole, the erosion holes are very clear and its failure pattern is in “W” shape. The wear of ZTA and Al2O3 mainly occurs in the binding phase of the crystal boundary. Thus, the crystal grains are exposed, but without breaks and cracks. The failure pattern is in the shape of “U”. Si3N4 only loses some binding phase of the crystal boundary and the erosion surface is smooth.
Authors: Chien Cheng Liu, Jow Lay Huang
Abstract: The effects of TiN addition to Si3N4 on its mechanical and wear properties were investigated. The size and content of TiN particles were found having effects on the strength and toughness of Si3N4-based composites. The friction and wear behavior of Si3N4 based composites against AISI-52100 steel were investigated in the ball -on- disc mode in a non-lubrication reciprocation motion. It has been found that under the conditions used all the ceramic components exhibited rather low friction and wear coefficients. For monolithic silicon nitride materials, high friction coefficients between 0.6 and 0.7 and wear coefficients between 1.63 × 10-8 and 1.389 × 10-6 mm3/N.m were measured. The contact load was varied from 100 to 300 N. By adding titanium nitride, the friction coefficients was reduced to a value between 0.4 and 0.5 and wear coefficients between 1.09×10-8 and 0.32×10-6 mm3/N.m at room temperature.
Authors: Bing Wu, Long Hao Qi, Jian Shen
Abstract: High producing cost is one of the important reasons that silicon nitride ceramics can’t be widely used today. In this paper, one kind of commercial low-cost silicon nitride powder was used as raw material. High density samples were obtained through pressureless sintering with alumina, yttria and magnesia as sintering aids. The Si3N4 material was tested and the erosion wear rate was measured. It was found that the low cost and dense Si3N4 ceramics exhibited a better erosion wear resistance than the hot-press ceramics produced with the UBE Si3N4 powder and much better then the Cr-26 cast iron. The worn surface was observed with the SEM and the erosion wear mechanisms were analyzed.
Authors: Hou Xing Zhang, Y. Huang, Yan Ruo Hong, Jia Lin Sun, N.S. Zhou
Abstract: The isothermal oxidation behaviors of MgAlON/Si3N4 composite which was synthesized by pressureless nitridation reaction sintering have been investigated in flowing air at 1100°C, 1200°C and 1300°C respectively. The results show that the composite represents excellent self-healing property of oxidation at 1300°C, which might be attributed to the formation of protective silicate film with reasonable viscosity, good spreading power and very low oxygen diffusion coefficient, and to the formation of compact surface resulted from the expansion effect of forming mullite from SiO2 and Al2O3. However, the self-healing property of it is relatively poor at 1100°C and 1200°C as compared to 1300°C.
Authors: Li Feng Wu, Chang An Wang, Yong Huang
Abstract: Ti3SiC2 bulk materials by hot-pressing sintering were presented through adding a little amount of B2O3 as a low-temperature additive in different raw-material systems. In one system, elemental titanium, silicon and active carbon were used as reactants with a molar ratio of 3: 1: 2. In another one, titanium carbide, titanium and silicon reacted together with a molar ratio of 2:1:1. At different temperatures, samples were synthesized by hot-pressing with a heating rate of 30°C min-1 before 1200°C and then 10°C min-1 to peak temperatures, holding for 2h. The effect of sintering temperature on the purity of Ti3SiC2 was investigated at the range of 1200°C to 1500°C. The products mainly contained Ti3SiC2 with TiC as the second phase. In some cases, Ti5Si3 appeared as well. When sintered at 1300°C, above 98vol% Ti3SiC2 was obtained in the elemental system. The roles of B2O3 additive were considered as weakening the thermal explosion reaction in the elemental mixture and affecting the diffusion procedure at low temperature in both systems.
Authors: Shi Bo Li, Hong Xiang Zhai
Abstract: Microscale plasticity of Ti3SiC2 was investigated by Vickers hardness indentation. The surface layer of the hardness indentations was removed by acid solution to observe microstructure beneath the indentations, where a large number of bending, delamination and kinking grains were found. These features suggest that Ti3SiC2 is able to consume microdamage around the indentations. Numerous basal plane dislocations and stacking faults lying in Ti3SiC2 grains or accumulating at grain boundaries were observed. The basal plane dislocations play an important role in the microscale plastic deformation. The plasticity and damage tolerance for Ti3SiC2 at room temperature should be attributed to multiple energy absorbing mechanisms: grains bending, delamination, kink-band formation, and the basal plane slip, etc.
Authors: Hong Xiang Zhai, Zhen Ying Huang, Yang Zhou, Zhi Li Zhang, Yi Fan Wang
Abstract: Characteristics of the frictional layer in high-purity Ti3SiC2 and TiC-contained Ti3SiC2, sliding against low carbon steel, were investigated. The friction and wear tests were made using a block-on-disk type friction tester with sliding speed of 20 m/s and several normal pressures from 0.1 MPa to 0.8 MPa. It was found that all friction surfaces, whether high-purity Ti3SiC2 or TiC-contained Ti3SiC2, were covered by a layer consisting of the oxides of Ti, Si and Fe. The layer was sticky, superimposed layer-by-layer, and the compact was increased with the normal pressure increasing. Because its antifriction effect, the friction coefficient decreases from the maximum 0.35 to 0.27 with increase in the normal pressure from 0.2 MPa to 0.8 MPa for the high-purity Ti3SiC2, and decreases from the maximum 0.55 to 0.37 for the same change of the normal pressure for the TiC-contained Ti3SiC2. The contained TiC grains had effects on the stickiness, liquidness, as well as the morphology of the layer, and induced the friction coefficient to increase in the entire level.
Authors: Zhen Ying Huang, Hong Xiang Zhai, Yang Zhou, Yi Fan Wang, Zhi Li Zhang
Abstract: The friction behavior of Ti3SiC2 sliding against low carbon steel was studied. Tests were carried out on a block-on-disk type friction tester, with the normal pressures from 0.2 MPa to 0.8 MPa and the sliding speed of 20 m/s. The results showed that, irrespective of the normal pressure, the friction coefficient exhibits a transition period in the initial stage of a sliding friction process, in which the friction coefficient increases from an initial value and tends to a saturation value, and then enters into a relatively steady stage. The results also showed that, the friction coefficient of the steady stage decreases gradually from 0.35 to 0.26 with increase in normal pressure from 0.2 MPa to 0.8 MPa. The friction surfaces were observed by using SEM. It was found that all the surfaces were covered by a layer consisting of the frictional products with antifriction effect, and that the denseness and the thickness of the layer were increased with increase in normal pressure applied.
Authors: Zhi Li Zhang, Hong Xiang Zhai, Zhen Ying Huang, Cui Wei Li, Yi Fan Wang, Zhouyang
Abstract: The Ti3SiC2 samples with a second phase TiC, prepared by hot-pressing progress route, were rubbed against low carbon steel disk with a sliding speed of 20 m/s under normal pressure 0.8 Mpa in atmosphere on a block-on-disk type friction tester. The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and meanwhile the composition was checked by energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show some impurity phases containing Ti, Si and Fe oxides in the samples. The possible tribo-chemical reaction mechanism on surface layer of Ti3SiC2 was suggested.
Authors: Sui Lin Shi, Wei Pan, Ming Hao Fang, Zhen Yi Fang
Abstract: HAp-Ti3SiC2 (60 vol.%) composite was fabricated using Sparkle Plasma Sintering (SPS). The mechanical properties and microstructure of the composite sintered at different temperature were investigated. The results show that no reaction occurred between HAp and Ti3SiC2, and the strength and fracture toughness of the composite were improved relative to pure HAp, which may be attributed to the change of microstructure and fracture mode as an effect of Ti3SiC2 addition.

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